Indonesia tsunami early warning system is scrutinising for its failure to protect lives and unsustainable in nature. In the past, various proposed methods to measure the sustainability at the macro and micro level focus on single hazard early warning system. However, ever since the sustainable development goals, a need to measure the sustainability of multi-hazard early warning system (MHEWS) become urgent. The research employs a mixed methodology using both qualitative and quantitative approach. A decade of data is collected from secondary sources between 2008 to 2018 from World Bank data sets for indicators to measure the factors that influence the sustainability of early warning systems. Furthermore, this research adopts a proposed comprehensive framework for the principles of assessing an MHEWS which initially intended for the Tsunami EWS based on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Equity and Legitimacy as part of understanding sustainability.
The results indicate that the transition of a single hazard towards an MHEWS still poses challenges. Definite improvements after a decade of development at the macro level, whereas at the micro level, the MHEWS has yet to show its effectiveness. The current system focuses on Hydro-meteorological hazards and in the process of integrating the earthquake, tsunami and volcano hazards. The concentration of investment of the MHEWS is at the national level and have not been enough investment at the local government levels. Issues of equity and legitimacy persist. The research recommends that a robust legal framework at the national and local level to ensure the sustainability of MHEWS in the future.