PURPOSE: To compare kangaroo mother care (KMC) and conventional cuddling care (CCC) in premature and small-for-gestational-age infants. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Thirty mother-infant dyads in two Australian neonatal nurseries were randomly assigned to the KMC group or the CCC group. Both groups of mothers cuddled their babies for a minimum of two hours a day, five days a week while in the study, with the KMC group having skin-to-skin contact while the CCC group had contact through normal clothing. MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLE: The main outcome variables were infant weight gain, temperature maintenance during KMC and CCC, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The results showed no difference between groups on the Parental Stress Scale (NICU) or the Parental Expectations Survey. Infants in both groups experienced equivalent maintenance of or rise in temperature while out of the incubators, equal weight gain, equal length of stay in the hospital, and equal duration of breastfeeding.