A comprehensive review of monkeypox virus and mpox characteristics

Emmanuel Alakunle, Daniel Kolawole, Diana Diaz-Cánova, Faith Alele, Oyelola Adegboye, Ugo Moens, Malachy Ifeanyi Okeke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
40 Downloads (Pure)


Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is the etiological agent of monkeypox (mpox), a zoonotic disease. MPXV is endemic in the forested regions of West and Central Africa, but the virus has recently spread globally, causing outbreaks in multiple non-endemic countries. In this paper, we review the characteristics of the virus, including its ecology, genomics, infection biology, and evolution. We estimate by phylogenomic molecular clock that the B.1 lineage responsible for the 2022 mpox outbreaks has been in circulation since 2016. We interrogate the host-virus interactions that modulate the virus infection biology, signal transduction, pathogenesis, and host immune responses. We highlight the changing pathophysiology and epidemiology of MPXV and summarize recent advances in the prevention and treatment of mpox. In addition, this review identifies knowledge gaps with respect to the virus and the disease, suggests future research directions to address the knowledge gaps, and proposes a One Health approach as an effective strategy to prevent current and future epidemics of mpox.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1360586
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) declare financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. The APC was covered by funds from The University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2024 Alakunle, Kolawole, Diaz-Cánova, Alele, Adegboye, Moens and Okeke.


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