In photoelectrochemical sensor (PEC sensor), sensitivity and selectivity are two essential factors which are determined by photosensitive of materials and identification of elements. Herein, a novel PEC aptamer sensor for streptomycin-specific detection was developed, with which the visible-light-active TiO2/BiOI/BiOBr heterostructure and aptamers were employed as photoactive material and bio-identification elements, separately. The combination of an appropriate amount of TiO2 with BiOI/BiOBr enhanced the photocurrent response, and thus is beneficial to the construction of PEC sensors. In addition, the one-pot synthesis of TiO2/BiOI/BiOBr has the advantage of being environmentally-friendly. Under optimized conditions, the photocurrent response of aptamer/TiO2/BiOI/BiOBr/ITO is linear with SRT concentration from 0.05 to 150 nM, and the detection limit (S/N = 3) is as low as 0.04 nM. This novel PEC sensing strategy provided an ultra-sensitive sensor with high selectivity and stability for SRT detection.