A randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low dose, short course primaquine in adults with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in two hospitals in India

Sundus Shafat Ahmad, Reena Verma, Robert J. Commons, Nitika, Sauman Singh-Phulgenda, Rutuja Chhajed, Praveen K. Bharti, Beauty Behera, Syed Mohammad Naser, Salil Kumar Pal, Parinita Halder Ranjit, Rajendra Kumar Baharia, Bhavin Solanki, K. J. Upadhyay, Philippe J. Guerin, Amit Sharma, Ric N. Price, Manju Rahi, Kamala Thriemer

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Abstract

Background: Plasmodium vivax remains a major challenge for malaria control and elimination due to its ability to cause relapsing illness. To prevent relapses the Indian National Center for Vector Borne Diseases Control (NCVBDC) recommends treatment with primaquine at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day provided over 14 days. Shorter treatment courses may improve adherence and treatment effectiveness.

Methods: This is a hospital-based, randomised, controlled, open-label trial in two centres in India. Patients above the age of 16 years, with uncomplicated vivax malaria, G6PD activity of ≥ 30% of the adjusted male median (AMM) and haemoglobin levels ≥ 8 g/dL will be recruited into the study and randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard schizonticidal treatment plus 7-day primaquine at 0.50 mg/kg/day or standard care with schizonticidal treatment plus 14-day primaquine at 0.25 mg/kg/day. Patients will be followed up for 6 months. The primary endpoint is the incidence risk of any P. vivax parasitaemia at 6 months. Safety outcomes include the incidence risk of severe anaemia (haemoglobin < 8 g/dL), the risk of blood transfusion, a > 25% fall in haemoglobin and an acute drop in haemoglobin of > 5 g/dL during primaquine treatment.

Discussion: This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 7-day primaquine regimen compared to the standard 14-day regimen in India. Results from this trial are likely to directly inform national treatment guidelines. 

Trial registration: Trial is registered on CTRI portal, Registration No: CTRI/2022/12/048283.

Original languageEnglish
Article number154
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalTrials
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024

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