Thirty three species of Eriocaulon are recognized in this generic revision for Australia. Eriocaulon carsonii F.Muell, is recognized with 3 subspecies. The identity of E. pallidum R.Br. remains uncertain and this species is treated as ‘Incertae Sedis’. A conservative approach to species recognition has been adopted and a number of forms are discussed under E. athertonense G.J.Leach, E. australe R.Br., E. cinereum R.Br., E. depressum R.Br. ex Sm., E. nanum R.Br., E. patericola G.J.Leach and E. pygmaeum Sol. ex Sm. The new species E. fenshamii and E. wolseleyi are described. Lectotypifications are provided for Electrosperma australasicum F.Muell., Eriocaulon ciliiflorum F.Muell., E. concretum F.Muell., E. nanum R.Br., E. nigricans R.Br., E. smithii R.Br., E. spectabile F.Muell. and E. willdenovianum Moldenke. The genus is found in all mainland States and Territories of Australia but is best represented in the tropics and sub-tropics. Species with extra-Australian distributions are E. australe, E. cinereum, E. depressum, E. setaceum L., E. truncatum Buch.-Ham. ex Mart., E. willdenovianum and E. zollingerianum Koernicke. A key to the Australian species, descriptions and distribution maps are provided. Seed coat ornamentation is an important diagnostic and identification character and SEM images are provided for each species.