Street lighting systems have contributed to undesirable local government expenditure, electricity peak loads, and greenhouse gas emissions. However, inadequate information on the benefits from energy efficiency improvements has given street lighting systems a lower priority in national energy efficiency policy. This paper estimates the national benefits arising from energy efficiency improvements on street lighting systems based on a pilot project in Jakarta city and energy audits in other three cities. The energy efficiency actions considered in the audits are the installation of power meters on every panel in street lighting systems and the replacement of old, inefficient armatures with high-efficiency armatures that are integrated with the dimming schemes featured in smart street lighting technology. The results show that electricity consumption reduction potential from energy efficiency improvements can reach 2.1 Terra Watts hours annually. This is equivalent to energy costs of USD 177.4 million, a USD 46.8 million energy subsidy saving, and a 2.4 million ton CO2e emission reduction. These findings can provide policymakers with important inputs while undertaking a social cost-benefit analysis of energy efficiency improvements in street lighting systems. However, achieving the potential benefits requires an active participation from investors or the Energy Service Company (ESCO) since local governments generally have limited budgets to implement these actions. � 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.