Background and Aim: Recent trends have shown a decline in the rates of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer in the vaccinated population but there has been a spike in the HPV-associated oropharyngeal, anal and penile cancers in the majority of the unvaccinated population which are young and middle-aged males. Indigenous populations at an international level carry a disproportionate burden of most diseases. The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the worldwide prevalence of HPV infection in Indigenous populations stratified by sex and site and to document the most commonly reported HPV types.
Methods: Published articles on HPV infection in Indigenous populations from PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and Web of Science were systematically searched from inception until 23 December 2019.
Results: A total of 41 studies were included in the final analysis. The pooled worldwide prevalence of HPV infection (for both oral and genital sites, both males and females) in Indigenous populations was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.9%–39.8%). Subgroup analysis (geographical) showed that the pooled prevalence for African Indigenous, American Indigenous and Asian-Oceanic Indigenous populations were 33.0% (95% CI: 12.8%–57.1%), 33.0% (95% CI: 27.4%–38.9%) and 33.3% (95% CI: 0.17.5%–51.3%), respectively.
Conclusion: There are not enough data on the burden of the infection carried by males especially with respect to highly suspicious sites like oropharynx. Also, we conclude an overall high prevalence of HPV infection in the Indigenous populations and increasing their susceptibility to benign and malignant manifestations of HPV.