Acaricidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil

In Vitro Sensitivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to Terpinen-4-ol

Shelley Walton, M McKinnon, Susan Pizzutto, Annette Marie Dougall, E WILLIAMS, Bart Currie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To compare the acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) and some of its individual active components on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. Dessign: In vitro acaricide sensitivity assessment. Setting: The Menzies School of Health Research laboratory, located near the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia, where patients are admitted and treated for crusted scabies. Participants: Scabies mites (S scabiei var hominis) were collected from a 20-year-old Aboriginal woman admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital with crusted scabies. Interventions: Within 3 hours of collection, scabies mites were placed in continuous direct contact with the TTO products and control acaricides and were observed at regular intervals. Main Outcome Measures: Percentage of mites dead at regular observation intervals between 5 minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to the TTO products and acaricides. Results: The 5% TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5% TTO, 2.1% terpinen-4-ol, 5% permethrin, and ivermectin (100 ?g/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed. Conclusions: Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate, as well as likely emerging resistance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin, are of concern and advocate for the identification and development of novel acaricidal drugs. Tea tree oil is a membrane-active biocide extracted from the tree M alternifolia. It is a principal antimicrobial in a wide range of pharmaceuticals sold in Australia, with the main active component being oxygenated terpenoids. The results suggest that TTO has a potential role as a new topical acaricide and confirm terpinen-4-ol as the primary active component.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-566
Number of pages4
JournalArchives of Dermatology
Volume140
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2004

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Melaleuca
Tea Tree Oil
Sarcoptes scabiei
Mites
Acaricides
Scabies
Permethrin
Ivermectin
Lindane
Pharmacopoeias
School Health Services
Disinfectants
Terpenes
Ointments
terpinenol-4
In Vitro Techniques
Treatment Failure
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Documentation
Communicable Diseases

Cite this

@article{ee66e5245fa345268091874452804c4e,
title = "Acaricidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: In Vitro Sensitivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to Terpinen-4-ol",
abstract = "Objective: To compare the acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) and some of its individual active components on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. Dessign: In vitro acaricide sensitivity assessment. Setting: The Menzies School of Health Research laboratory, located near the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia, where patients are admitted and treated for crusted scabies. Participants: Scabies mites (S scabiei var hominis) were collected from a 20-year-old Aboriginal woman admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital with crusted scabies. Interventions: Within 3 hours of collection, scabies mites were placed in continuous direct contact with the TTO products and control acaricides and were observed at regular intervals. Main Outcome Measures: Percentage of mites dead at regular observation intervals between 5 minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to the TTO products and acaricides. Results: The 5{\%} TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5{\%} TTO, 2.1{\%} terpinen-4-ol, 5{\%} permethrin, and ivermectin (100 ?g/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed. Conclusions: Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate, as well as likely emerging resistance to 5{\%} permethrin and oral ivermectin, are of concern and advocate for the identification and development of novel acaricidal drugs. Tea tree oil is a membrane-active biocide extracted from the tree M alternifolia. It is a principal antimicrobial in a wide range of pharmaceuticals sold in Australia, with the main active component being oxygenated terpenoids. The results suggest that TTO has a potential role as a new topical acaricide and confirm terpinen-4-ol as the primary active component.",
keywords = "cineole, equimec, ivermectin, permethrin, tea tree oil, terpinen 4 ol, terpineol, article, concentration response, controlled study, drug activity, nonhuman, priority journal, Sarcoptes scabiei, scabies, Adult, Animals, Female, Humans, Inhibitory Concentration 50, Insecticides, Melaleuca, Phytotherapy, Scabies, Tea Tree Oil",
author = "Shelley Walton and M McKinnon and Susan Pizzutto and Dougall, {Annette Marie} and E WILLIAMS and Bart Currie",
year = "2004",
language = "English",
volume = "140",
pages = "563--566",
journal = "Archives of Dermatology",
issn = "0003-987X",
publisher = "American Medical Association",
number = "5",

}

Acaricidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil : In Vitro Sensitivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to Terpinen-4-ol. / Walton, Shelley; McKinnon, M; Pizzutto, Susan; Dougall, Annette Marie; WILLIAMS, E; Currie, Bart.

In: Archives of Dermatology, Vol. 140, No. 5, 2004, p. 563-566.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acaricidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil

T2 - In Vitro Sensitivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to Terpinen-4-ol

AU - Walton, Shelley

AU - McKinnon, M

AU - Pizzutto, Susan

AU - Dougall, Annette Marie

AU - WILLIAMS, E

AU - Currie, Bart

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Objective: To compare the acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) and some of its individual active components on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. Dessign: In vitro acaricide sensitivity assessment. Setting: The Menzies School of Health Research laboratory, located near the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia, where patients are admitted and treated for crusted scabies. Participants: Scabies mites (S scabiei var hominis) were collected from a 20-year-old Aboriginal woman admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital with crusted scabies. Interventions: Within 3 hours of collection, scabies mites were placed in continuous direct contact with the TTO products and control acaricides and were observed at regular intervals. Main Outcome Measures: Percentage of mites dead at regular observation intervals between 5 minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to the TTO products and acaricides. Results: The 5% TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5% TTO, 2.1% terpinen-4-ol, 5% permethrin, and ivermectin (100 ?g/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed. Conclusions: Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate, as well as likely emerging resistance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin, are of concern and advocate for the identification and development of novel acaricidal drugs. Tea tree oil is a membrane-active biocide extracted from the tree M alternifolia. It is a principal antimicrobial in a wide range of pharmaceuticals sold in Australia, with the main active component being oxygenated terpenoids. The results suggest that TTO has a potential role as a new topical acaricide and confirm terpinen-4-ol as the primary active component.

AB - Objective: To compare the acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) and some of its individual active components on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. Dessign: In vitro acaricide sensitivity assessment. Setting: The Menzies School of Health Research laboratory, located near the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia, where patients are admitted and treated for crusted scabies. Participants: Scabies mites (S scabiei var hominis) were collected from a 20-year-old Aboriginal woman admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital with crusted scabies. Interventions: Within 3 hours of collection, scabies mites were placed in continuous direct contact with the TTO products and control acaricides and were observed at regular intervals. Main Outcome Measures: Percentage of mites dead at regular observation intervals between 5 minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to the TTO products and acaricides. Results: The 5% TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5% TTO, 2.1% terpinen-4-ol, 5% permethrin, and ivermectin (100 ?g/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed. Conclusions: Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate, as well as likely emerging resistance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin, are of concern and advocate for the identification and development of novel acaricidal drugs. Tea tree oil is a membrane-active biocide extracted from the tree M alternifolia. It is a principal antimicrobial in a wide range of pharmaceuticals sold in Australia, with the main active component being oxygenated terpenoids. The results suggest that TTO has a potential role as a new topical acaricide and confirm terpinen-4-ol as the primary active component.

KW - cineole

KW - equimec

KW - ivermectin

KW - permethrin

KW - tea tree oil

KW - terpinen 4 ol

KW - terpineol

KW - article

KW - concentration response

KW - controlled study

KW - drug activity

KW - nonhuman

KW - priority journal

KW - Sarcoptes scabiei

KW - scabies

KW - Adult

KW - Animals

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Inhibitory Concentration 50

KW - Insecticides

KW - Melaleuca

KW - Phytotherapy

KW - Scabies

KW - Tea Tree Oil

M3 - Article

VL - 140

SP - 563

EP - 566

JO - Archives of Dermatology

JF - Archives of Dermatology

SN - 0003-987X

IS - 5

ER -