Acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers

Incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism

James Furness, Wayne Hing, Joseph Walsh, Alan Abbott, Jeremy Sheppard, Mike Climstein

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Background: There are an estimated 37 million surfers worldwide, with 2.5 million recreational surfers in Australia. The recreational activity and sport of surfing has grown dramatically since the 1960s, but scientific research has been poorly mirrored in comparison with most other mainstream sports.

    Purpose: To identify the incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism of acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers over a 12-month period.

    Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

    Methods: An online survey using an open-source survey application was utilized. The survey consisted of 2 primary sections: Section 1 included demographic information and participation levels (age, height, weight, hours surfed, competitive level); section 2 incorporated injury type, mechanism, severity, and injury management.

    Results: A total of 1348 participants (91.3% males; 43.1% competitive surfers) were included in data analysis. A total of 512 acute injuries were classified as major, providing an incidence proportion of 0.38 (CI, 0.35-0.41) acute injuries per year. The incidence rate was calculated to be 1.79 (CI, 1.67-1.92) major injuries per 1000 hours of surfing. The shoulder, ankle, and head/face regions had the highest frequencies of acute injury, representing 16.4%, 14.6%, and 13.3%, respectively. Injuries were predominantly of muscular, joint, and skin origin, representing 30.3%, 27.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. Skin injuries were primarily a result of direct trauma, while joint and muscular injuries were mainly a result of maneuvers performed and repetitive actions. Key risk factors that increased the incidence of sustaining an acute injury included competitive status, hours surfed (>6.5 hours/week), and the ability to perform aerial maneuvers. The incidence proportion for surfers completing aerial maneuvers was calculated to be 0.48 (CI, 0.39-0.58) major injuries per year, this being the highest incidence proportion irrespective of competitive status.

    Conclusion: This is the largest surfing-specific survey that included both recreational and competitive surfers conducted in Australia to date. The shoulder, ankle, head, and face were identified as the key regions where acute injuries occur in surfers. This research may aid in reducing the occurrence of injury through musculoskeletal screening in these key injury-prone regions and through the use of sport-specific strength training and conditioning.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1246-1254
    Number of pages9
    JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
    Volume43
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015

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    Incidence
    Wounds and Injuries
    Sports
    Ankle
    Joints
    Skin
    Resistance Training
    Research
    Epidemiology
    Demography
    Weights and Measures
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Cite this

    Furness, James ; Hing, Wayne ; Walsh, Joseph ; Abbott, Alan ; Sheppard, Jeremy ; Climstein, Mike. / Acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers : Incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism. In: American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015 ; Vol. 43, No. 5. pp. 1246-1254.
    @article{05e9d2474bbd417fb568821c3e18c4d7,
    title = "Acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers: Incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism",
    abstract = "Background: There are an estimated 37 million surfers worldwide, with 2.5 million recreational surfers in Australia. The recreational activity and sport of surfing has grown dramatically since the 1960s, but scientific research has been poorly mirrored in comparison with most other mainstream sports.Purpose: To identify the incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism of acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers over a 12-month period.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: An online survey using an open-source survey application was utilized. The survey consisted of 2 primary sections: Section 1 included demographic information and participation levels (age, height, weight, hours surfed, competitive level); section 2 incorporated injury type, mechanism, severity, and injury management.Results: A total of 1348 participants (91.3{\%} males; 43.1{\%} competitive surfers) were included in data analysis. A total of 512 acute injuries were classified as major, providing an incidence proportion of 0.38 (CI, 0.35-0.41) acute injuries per year. The incidence rate was calculated to be 1.79 (CI, 1.67-1.92) major injuries per 1000 hours of surfing. The shoulder, ankle, and head/face regions had the highest frequencies of acute injury, representing 16.4{\%}, 14.6{\%}, and 13.3{\%}, respectively. Injuries were predominantly of muscular, joint, and skin origin, representing 30.3{\%}, 27.7{\%}, and 18.9{\%}, respectively. Skin injuries were primarily a result of direct trauma, while joint and muscular injuries were mainly a result of maneuvers performed and repetitive actions. Key risk factors that increased the incidence of sustaining an acute injury included competitive status, hours surfed (>6.5 hours/week), and the ability to perform aerial maneuvers. The incidence proportion for surfers completing aerial maneuvers was calculated to be 0.48 (CI, 0.39-0.58) major injuries per year, this being the highest incidence proportion irrespective of competitive status.Conclusion: This is the largest surfing-specific survey that included both recreational and competitive surfers conducted in Australia to date. The shoulder, ankle, head, and face were identified as the key regions where acute injuries occur in surfers. This research may aid in reducing the occurrence of injury through musculoskeletal screening in these key injury-prone regions and through the use of sport-specific strength training and conditioning.",
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    author = "James Furness and Wayne Hing and Joseph Walsh and Alan Abbott and Jeremy Sheppard and Mike Climstein",
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    Acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers : Incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism. / Furness, James; Hing, Wayne; Walsh, Joseph; Abbott, Alan; Sheppard, Jeremy; Climstein, Mike.

    In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 5, 01.05.2015, p. 1246-1254.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers

    T2 - Incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism

    AU - Furness, James

    AU - Hing, Wayne

    AU - Walsh, Joseph

    AU - Abbott, Alan

    AU - Sheppard, Jeremy

    AU - Climstein, Mike

    PY - 2015/5/1

    Y1 - 2015/5/1

    N2 - Background: There are an estimated 37 million surfers worldwide, with 2.5 million recreational surfers in Australia. The recreational activity and sport of surfing has grown dramatically since the 1960s, but scientific research has been poorly mirrored in comparison with most other mainstream sports.Purpose: To identify the incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism of acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers over a 12-month period.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: An online survey using an open-source survey application was utilized. The survey consisted of 2 primary sections: Section 1 included demographic information and participation levels (age, height, weight, hours surfed, competitive level); section 2 incorporated injury type, mechanism, severity, and injury management.Results: A total of 1348 participants (91.3% males; 43.1% competitive surfers) were included in data analysis. A total of 512 acute injuries were classified as major, providing an incidence proportion of 0.38 (CI, 0.35-0.41) acute injuries per year. The incidence rate was calculated to be 1.79 (CI, 1.67-1.92) major injuries per 1000 hours of surfing. The shoulder, ankle, and head/face regions had the highest frequencies of acute injury, representing 16.4%, 14.6%, and 13.3%, respectively. Injuries were predominantly of muscular, joint, and skin origin, representing 30.3%, 27.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. Skin injuries were primarily a result of direct trauma, while joint and muscular injuries were mainly a result of maneuvers performed and repetitive actions. Key risk factors that increased the incidence of sustaining an acute injury included competitive status, hours surfed (>6.5 hours/week), and the ability to perform aerial maneuvers. The incidence proportion for surfers completing aerial maneuvers was calculated to be 0.48 (CI, 0.39-0.58) major injuries per year, this being the highest incidence proportion irrespective of competitive status.Conclusion: This is the largest surfing-specific survey that included both recreational and competitive surfers conducted in Australia to date. The shoulder, ankle, head, and face were identified as the key regions where acute injuries occur in surfers. This research may aid in reducing the occurrence of injury through musculoskeletal screening in these key injury-prone regions and through the use of sport-specific strength training and conditioning.

    AB - Background: There are an estimated 37 million surfers worldwide, with 2.5 million recreational surfers in Australia. The recreational activity and sport of surfing has grown dramatically since the 1960s, but scientific research has been poorly mirrored in comparison with most other mainstream sports.Purpose: To identify the incidence, severity, location, type, and mechanism of acute injuries in recreational and competitive surfers over a 12-month period.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: An online survey using an open-source survey application was utilized. The survey consisted of 2 primary sections: Section 1 included demographic information and participation levels (age, height, weight, hours surfed, competitive level); section 2 incorporated injury type, mechanism, severity, and injury management.Results: A total of 1348 participants (91.3% males; 43.1% competitive surfers) were included in data analysis. A total of 512 acute injuries were classified as major, providing an incidence proportion of 0.38 (CI, 0.35-0.41) acute injuries per year. The incidence rate was calculated to be 1.79 (CI, 1.67-1.92) major injuries per 1000 hours of surfing. The shoulder, ankle, and head/face regions had the highest frequencies of acute injury, representing 16.4%, 14.6%, and 13.3%, respectively. Injuries were predominantly of muscular, joint, and skin origin, representing 30.3%, 27.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. Skin injuries were primarily a result of direct trauma, while joint and muscular injuries were mainly a result of maneuvers performed and repetitive actions. Key risk factors that increased the incidence of sustaining an acute injury included competitive status, hours surfed (>6.5 hours/week), and the ability to perform aerial maneuvers. The incidence proportion for surfers completing aerial maneuvers was calculated to be 0.48 (CI, 0.39-0.58) major injuries per year, this being the highest incidence proportion irrespective of competitive status.Conclusion: This is the largest surfing-specific survey that included both recreational and competitive surfers conducted in Australia to date. The shoulder, ankle, head, and face were identified as the key regions where acute injuries occur in surfers. This research may aid in reducing the occurrence of injury through musculoskeletal screening in these key injury-prone regions and through the use of sport-specific strength training and conditioning.

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    KW - Athletic Injuries

    KW - Australia

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    KW - male

    KW - middle aged

    KW - pathophysiology

    KW - recreation

    KW - risk factor

    KW - sport

    KW - young adult

    KW - Adult

    KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

    KW - Female

    KW - Humans

    KW - Incidence

    KW - Male

    KW - Middle Aged

    KW - Recreation

    KW - Risk Factors

    KW - Sports

    KW - Young Adult

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