In recent work we have presented a formal framework for linguistic annotation based on labeled acyclic digraphs. These 'annotation graphs' offer a simple yet powerful method for representing complex annotation structures incorporating hierarchy and overlap. Here, we motivate and illustrate our approach using discourse-level annotations of text and speech data drawn from the CALLHOME, COCONUT, MUC-7, DAMSL and TRAINS annotation schemes. With the help of domain specialists, we have constructed a hybrid multi-level annotation for a fragment of the Boston University Radio Speech Corpus which includes the following levels: segment, word, breath, ToBI, Tilt, Treebank, coreference and named entity. We show how annotation graphs can represent hybrid multi-level structures which derive from a diverse set of file formats. We also show how the approach facilitates substantive comparison of multiple annotations of a single signal based on different theoretical models. The discussion shows how annotation graphs open the door to wide-ranging integration of tools, formats and corpora.
|Title of host publication||Towards Standards and Tools for Discourse Tagging -- Proceedings of the Workshop|
|Publisher||Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|
Bird, S., & Liberman, M. (1999). Annotation graphs as a framework for multidimensional linguistic data analysis. In Towards Standards and Tools for Discourse Tagging -- Proceedings of the Workshop (pp. 1-10). Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL).