Methods: In this open-label trial undertaken in 26 centres in Australia and New Zealand, participants undergoing peritoneal dialysis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio with an adaptive allocation algorithm to daily topical exit-site application of antibacterial honey plus standard exit-site care or intranasal mupirocin prophylaxis (only in carriers of nasal S aureus) plus standard exit-site care (control group). The primary endpoint was time to first infection related to peritoneal dialysis (exit-site infection, tunnel infection, or peritonitis). The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number 12607000537459.
Findings: Of 371 participants, 186 were assigned to the honey group and 185 to the control group. The median peritoneal-dialysis-related infection-free survival times were not significantly different in the honey (16·0 months [IQR not estimable]) and control groups (17·7 months [not estimable]; unadjusted hazard ratio 1·12, 95% CI 0·83–1·51; p=0·47). In the subgroup analyses, honey increased the risks of both the primary endpoint (1·85, 1·05–3·24; p=0·03) and peritonitis (2·25, 1·16–4·36) in participants with diabetes. The incidences of serious adverse events (298 vs 327, respectively; p=0·1) and deaths (14 vs 18, respectively; p=0·9) were not significantly different in the honey and control groups. 11 (6%) participants in the honey group had local skin reactions.
Interpretation: The findings of this trial show that honey cannot be recommended routinely for the prevention of peritoneal-dialysis-related infections.