Asia is defined here as the land and territories of 51 countries/regions (see Figure 24-1). It can be broadly divided into six subregions based on geographical position and coastal peripheries. These are, in alphabetical order, Central Asia (5 countries), East Asia (7 countries/regions), North Asia (2 countries), South Asia (8 countries), Southeast Asia (12 countries), and West Asia (17 countries). The population of Asia was reported to be about 4299 million in 2013, which is about 60% of the world population (UN DESA Population Division, 2013). Population density was reportedly about 134 per square kilometer in 2012 (PRB, 2012). The highest life expectancy at birth is 84 (Japan) and the lowest is 50 (Afghanistan) (CIA, 2013). The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ranged from US$620 (Afghanistan for 2011) to US$51,709 (Singapore for 2012) (World Bank, 2013). 24.2. Major Conclusions from Previous Assessments Major highlights from previous assessments for Asia include: • Warming trends, including higher extremes, are strongest over the continental interiors of Asia, and warming in the period 1979 onward was strongest over China in winter, and northern and eastern Asia in spring and autumn (WGI AR4 Section 220.127.116.11; SREX Section 3.3.1). • From 1900 to 2005, precipitation increased significantly in northern and central Asia but declined in parts of southern Asia (WGI AR4 SPM). • Future climate change is likely to affect water resource scarcity with enhanced climate variability and more rapid melting of glaciers (WGII AR4 Section 10.4.2). • Increased risk of extinction for many plant and animal species in Asia is likelyas a result of the synergistic effects of climate change and habitat fragmentation (WGII AR4 Section 10.4.4). • Projected sea level rise is very likely to result in significant losses of coastal ecosystems (WGII AR4 Sections 10.4.3.2, 10.6.1). • There will be regional differences within Asia in the impacts of climate change on food production (WGII AR4 Section 10.4.1.1).
|Title of host publication||Climate Change 2014|
|Subtitle of host publication||Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Part B: Regional Aspects: Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
|Number of pages||44|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2015|