B Part of It study

a longitudinal study to assess carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in first year university students in South Australia

Mark McMillan, Luke Walters, Turra Mark, Andrew Lawrence, Lex E.X. Leong, Thomas Sullivan, Geraint B. Rogers, Ross M. Andrews, Helen S. Marshall

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    Abstract

    Objectives: N. meningitidis carriage in Australia is poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate prevalence and risk factors for carriage of N. meningitidis in South Australian university students. We also sought to identify whether delayed freezing of oropharyngeal samples altered PCR positivity, cycle threshold, or culture positivity.

    Methods: Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from first year university students and repeated after 3 months, with risk factor questionnaires completed at both visits. Specimens were subjected to real-time PCR screening for the presence of specific meningococcal DNA.

    Results: The study enrolled 421 individuals, 259 returned at 3 months. At baseline, 56% of participants were female and 1.9% smokers. Carriage of N. meningitidis at baseline was 6.2% (95% CI, [4.2%, 8.9%]). Visiting a bar more than once a week (OR 9.07; [2.44, 33.72]) and intimate kissing (OR 4.37; [1.45, 13.14]) were associated with increased carriage. After imputing missing data, the point estimate for carriage at 3 months was 8.6% compared to 6.2% at baseline (OR 1.42; 0.91 to 2.20). Recovery of N. meningitidis on selective agar was significantly reduced in cryovials frozen at 48 hours compared to 6 hours (24/26, 92.3% vs. 14/26, 53.9%, p = 0.002).

    Conclusion: Attending bars and engaging in intimate kissing is associated with oropharyngeal carriage in South Australian university students. Adolescent meningococcal vaccine programs should be implemented at school, prior to increased attendance at bars, intimate contact, and carriage acquisition. Delaying freezing of oropharyngeal specimens longer than 16 hours reduces yield of N. meningitidis by culture but not PCR detection.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)987-994
    Number of pages8
    JournalHuman Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
    Volume15
    Issue number4
    Early online date4 Jan 2019
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019

    Fingerprint

    South Australia
    Neisseria meningitidis
    Longitudinal Studies
    Students
    Freezing
    Meningococcal Vaccines
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Agar
    Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
    DNA

    Cite this

    McMillan, Mark ; Walters, Luke ; Mark, Turra ; Lawrence, Andrew ; Leong, Lex E.X. ; Sullivan, Thomas ; Rogers, Geraint B. ; Andrews, Ross M. ; Marshall, Helen S. / B Part of It study : a longitudinal study to assess carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in first year university students in South Australia. In: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics. 2019 ; Vol. 15, No. 4. pp. 987-994.
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    title = "B Part of It study: a longitudinal study to assess carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in first year university students in South Australia",
    abstract = "Objectives: N. meningitidis carriage in Australia is poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate prevalence and risk factors for carriage of N. meningitidis in South Australian university students. We also sought to identify whether delayed freezing of oropharyngeal samples altered PCR positivity, cycle threshold, or culture positivity. Methods: Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from first year university students and repeated after 3 months, with risk factor questionnaires completed at both visits. Specimens were subjected to real-time PCR screening for the presence of specific meningococcal DNA. Results: The study enrolled 421 individuals, 259 returned at 3 months. At baseline, 56{\%} of participants were female and 1.9{\%} smokers. Carriage of N. meningitidis at baseline was 6.2{\%} (95{\%} CI, [4.2{\%}, 8.9{\%}]). Visiting a bar more than once a week (OR 9.07; [2.44, 33.72]) and intimate kissing (OR 4.37; [1.45, 13.14]) were associated with increased carriage. After imputing missing data, the point estimate for carriage at 3 months was 8.6{\%} compared to 6.2{\%} at baseline (OR 1.42; 0.91 to 2.20). Recovery of N. meningitidis on selective agar was significantly reduced in cryovials frozen at 48 hours compared to 6 hours (24/26, 92.3{\%} vs. 14/26, 53.9{\%}, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Attending bars and engaging in intimate kissing is associated with oropharyngeal carriage in South Australian university students. Adolescent meningococcal vaccine programs should be implemented at school, prior to increased attendance at bars, intimate contact, and carriage acquisition. Delaying freezing of oropharyngeal specimens longer than 16 hours reduces yield of N. meningitidis by culture but not PCR detection.",
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    B Part of It study : a longitudinal study to assess carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in first year university students in South Australia. / McMillan, Mark; Walters, Luke; Mark, Turra; Lawrence, Andrew; Leong, Lex E.X.; Sullivan, Thomas; Rogers, Geraint B.; Andrews, Ross M.; Marshall, Helen S.

    In: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Vol. 15, No. 4, 03.04.2019, p. 987-994.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - B Part of It study

    T2 - a longitudinal study to assess carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in first year university students in South Australia

    AU - McMillan, Mark

    AU - Walters, Luke

    AU - Mark, Turra

    AU - Lawrence, Andrew

    AU - Leong, Lex E.X.

    AU - Sullivan, Thomas

    AU - Rogers, Geraint B.

    AU - Andrews, Ross M.

    AU - Marshall, Helen S.

    PY - 2019/4/3

    Y1 - 2019/4/3

    N2 - Objectives: N. meningitidis carriage in Australia is poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate prevalence and risk factors for carriage of N. meningitidis in South Australian university students. We also sought to identify whether delayed freezing of oropharyngeal samples altered PCR positivity, cycle threshold, or culture positivity. Methods: Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from first year university students and repeated after 3 months, with risk factor questionnaires completed at both visits. Specimens were subjected to real-time PCR screening for the presence of specific meningococcal DNA. Results: The study enrolled 421 individuals, 259 returned at 3 months. At baseline, 56% of participants were female and 1.9% smokers. Carriage of N. meningitidis at baseline was 6.2% (95% CI, [4.2%, 8.9%]). Visiting a bar more than once a week (OR 9.07; [2.44, 33.72]) and intimate kissing (OR 4.37; [1.45, 13.14]) were associated with increased carriage. After imputing missing data, the point estimate for carriage at 3 months was 8.6% compared to 6.2% at baseline (OR 1.42; 0.91 to 2.20). Recovery of N. meningitidis on selective agar was significantly reduced in cryovials frozen at 48 hours compared to 6 hours (24/26, 92.3% vs. 14/26, 53.9%, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Attending bars and engaging in intimate kissing is associated with oropharyngeal carriage in South Australian university students. Adolescent meningococcal vaccine programs should be implemented at school, prior to increased attendance at bars, intimate contact, and carriage acquisition. Delaying freezing of oropharyngeal specimens longer than 16 hours reduces yield of N. meningitidis by culture but not PCR detection.

    AB - Objectives: N. meningitidis carriage in Australia is poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate prevalence and risk factors for carriage of N. meningitidis in South Australian university students. We also sought to identify whether delayed freezing of oropharyngeal samples altered PCR positivity, cycle threshold, or culture positivity. Methods: Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from first year university students and repeated after 3 months, with risk factor questionnaires completed at both visits. Specimens were subjected to real-time PCR screening for the presence of specific meningococcal DNA. Results: The study enrolled 421 individuals, 259 returned at 3 months. At baseline, 56% of participants were female and 1.9% smokers. Carriage of N. meningitidis at baseline was 6.2% (95% CI, [4.2%, 8.9%]). Visiting a bar more than once a week (OR 9.07; [2.44, 33.72]) and intimate kissing (OR 4.37; [1.45, 13.14]) were associated with increased carriage. After imputing missing data, the point estimate for carriage at 3 months was 8.6% compared to 6.2% at baseline (OR 1.42; 0.91 to 2.20). Recovery of N. meningitidis on selective agar was significantly reduced in cryovials frozen at 48 hours compared to 6 hours (24/26, 92.3% vs. 14/26, 53.9%, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Attending bars and engaging in intimate kissing is associated with oropharyngeal carriage in South Australian university students. Adolescent meningococcal vaccine programs should be implemented at school, prior to increased attendance at bars, intimate contact, and carriage acquisition. Delaying freezing of oropharyngeal specimens longer than 16 hours reduces yield of N. meningitidis by culture but not PCR detection.

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    KW - carriage

    KW - Neisseria meningitidis

    KW - risk factors

    KW - saliva

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