Barriers to routine G6PD testing prior to treatment with primaquine

Benedikt Ley, Kamala Thriemer, Jessica Jaswal, Eugenie Poirot, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Ching Swe Phru, Wasif Ali Khan, Lek Dysoley, Gao Qi, Chong Chee Kheong, Ummi Kalthom Shamsudin, Ingrid Chen, Jimee Hwang, Roly Gosling, Ric N. Price

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Abstract

Background: Primaquine is essential for the radical cure of vivax malaria, however its broad application is hindered by the risk of drug-induced haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Rapid diagnostic tests capable of diagnosing G6PD deficiency are now available, but these are not used widely.

Methods: A series of qualitative interviews were conducted with policy makers and healthcare providers in four vivax-endemic countries. Routine G6PD testing is not part of current policy in Bangladesh, Cambodia or China, but it is in Malaysia. The interviews were analysed with regard to respondents perceptions of vivax malaria, -primaquine based treatment for malaria and the complexities of G6PD deficiency.

Results: Three barriers to the roll-out of routine G6PD testing were identified in all sites: (a) a perceived low risk of drug-induced haemolysis; (b) the perception that vivax malaria was benign and accordingly treatment with primaquine was not regarded as a priority; and, (c) the additional costs of introducing routine testing. In Malaysia, respondents considered the current test and treat algorithm suitable and the need for an alternative approach was only considered relevant in highly mobile and hard to reach populations.

Conclusions: Greater efforts are needed to increase awareness of the benefits of the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and this should be supported by economic analyses exploring the cost effectiveness of routine G6PD testing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number329
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalMalaria Journal
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2017

Fingerprint

Primaquine
Vivax Malaria
Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase
Malaysia
Hemolysis
Interviews
Cambodia
Plasmodium vivax
Bangladesh
Administrative Personnel
Routine Diagnostic Tests
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Health Personnel
Malaria
Cost-Benefit Analysis
China
Therapeutics
Economics
Costs and Cost Analysis

Cite this

Ley, Benedikt ; Thriemer, Kamala ; Jaswal, Jessica ; Poirot, Eugenie ; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul ; Phru, Ching Swe ; Khan, Wasif Ali ; Dysoley, Lek ; Qi, Gao ; Kheong, Chong Chee ; Shamsudin, Ummi Kalthom ; Chen, Ingrid ; Hwang, Jimee ; Gosling, Roly ; Price, Ric N. / Barriers to routine G6PD testing prior to treatment with primaquine. In: Malaria Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 16. pp. 1-10.
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title = "Barriers to routine G6PD testing prior to treatment with primaquine",
abstract = "Background: Primaquine is essential for the radical cure of vivax malaria, however its broad application is hindered by the risk of drug-induced haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Rapid diagnostic tests capable of diagnosing G6PD deficiency are now available, but these are not used widely. Methods: A series of qualitative interviews were conducted with policy makers and healthcare providers in four vivax-endemic countries. Routine G6PD testing is not part of current policy in Bangladesh, Cambodia or China, but it is in Malaysia. The interviews were analysed with regard to respondents perceptions of vivax malaria, -primaquine based treatment for malaria and the complexities of G6PD deficiency. Results: Three barriers to the roll-out of routine G6PD testing were identified in all sites: (a) a perceived low risk of drug-induced haemolysis; (b) the perception that vivax malaria was benign and accordingly treatment with primaquine was not regarded as a priority; and, (c) the additional costs of introducing routine testing. In Malaysia, respondents considered the current test and treat algorithm suitable and the need for an alternative approach was only considered relevant in highly mobile and hard to reach populations. Conclusions: Greater efforts are needed to increase awareness of the benefits of the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and this should be supported by economic analyses exploring the cost effectiveness of routine G6PD testing.",
author = "Benedikt Ley and Kamala Thriemer and Jessica Jaswal and Eugenie Poirot and Alam, {Mohammad Shafiul} and Phru, {Ching Swe} and Khan, {Wasif Ali} and Lek Dysoley and Gao Qi and Kheong, {Chong Chee} and Shamsudin, {Ummi Kalthom} and Ingrid Chen and Jimee Hwang and Roly Gosling and Price, {Ric N.}",
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month = "8",
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doi = "10.1186/s12936-017-1981-y",
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journal = "Malaria Journal",
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Ley, B, Thriemer, K, Jaswal, J, Poirot, E, Alam, MS, Phru, CS, Khan, WA, Dysoley, L, Qi, G, Kheong, CC, Shamsudin, UK, Chen, I, Hwang, J, Gosling, R & Price, RN 2017, 'Barriers to routine G6PD testing prior to treatment with primaquine', Malaria Journal, vol. 16, 329, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-1981-y

Barriers to routine G6PD testing prior to treatment with primaquine. / Ley, Benedikt; Thriemer, Kamala; Jaswal, Jessica; Poirot, Eugenie; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Phru, Ching Swe; Khan, Wasif Ali; Dysoley, Lek; Qi, Gao; Kheong, Chong Chee; Shamsudin, Ummi Kalthom; Chen, Ingrid; Hwang, Jimee; Gosling, Roly; Price, Ric N.

In: Malaria Journal, Vol. 16, 329, 10.08.2017, p. 1-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Barriers to routine G6PD testing prior to treatment with primaquine

AU - Ley, Benedikt

AU - Thriemer, Kamala

AU - Jaswal, Jessica

AU - Poirot, Eugenie

AU - Alam, Mohammad Shafiul

AU - Phru, Ching Swe

AU - Khan, Wasif Ali

AU - Dysoley, Lek

AU - Qi, Gao

AU - Kheong, Chong Chee

AU - Shamsudin, Ummi Kalthom

AU - Chen, Ingrid

AU - Hwang, Jimee

AU - Gosling, Roly

AU - Price, Ric N.

PY - 2017/8/10

Y1 - 2017/8/10

N2 - Background: Primaquine is essential for the radical cure of vivax malaria, however its broad application is hindered by the risk of drug-induced haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Rapid diagnostic tests capable of diagnosing G6PD deficiency are now available, but these are not used widely. Methods: A series of qualitative interviews were conducted with policy makers and healthcare providers in four vivax-endemic countries. Routine G6PD testing is not part of current policy in Bangladesh, Cambodia or China, but it is in Malaysia. The interviews were analysed with regard to respondents perceptions of vivax malaria, -primaquine based treatment for malaria and the complexities of G6PD deficiency. Results: Three barriers to the roll-out of routine G6PD testing were identified in all sites: (a) a perceived low risk of drug-induced haemolysis; (b) the perception that vivax malaria was benign and accordingly treatment with primaquine was not regarded as a priority; and, (c) the additional costs of introducing routine testing. In Malaysia, respondents considered the current test and treat algorithm suitable and the need for an alternative approach was only considered relevant in highly mobile and hard to reach populations. Conclusions: Greater efforts are needed to increase awareness of the benefits of the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and this should be supported by economic analyses exploring the cost effectiveness of routine G6PD testing.

AB - Background: Primaquine is essential for the radical cure of vivax malaria, however its broad application is hindered by the risk of drug-induced haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Rapid diagnostic tests capable of diagnosing G6PD deficiency are now available, but these are not used widely. Methods: A series of qualitative interviews were conducted with policy makers and healthcare providers in four vivax-endemic countries. Routine G6PD testing is not part of current policy in Bangladesh, Cambodia or China, but it is in Malaysia. The interviews were analysed with regard to respondents perceptions of vivax malaria, -primaquine based treatment for malaria and the complexities of G6PD deficiency. Results: Three barriers to the roll-out of routine G6PD testing were identified in all sites: (a) a perceived low risk of drug-induced haemolysis; (b) the perception that vivax malaria was benign and accordingly treatment with primaquine was not regarded as a priority; and, (c) the additional costs of introducing routine testing. In Malaysia, respondents considered the current test and treat algorithm suitable and the need for an alternative approach was only considered relevant in highly mobile and hard to reach populations. Conclusions: Greater efforts are needed to increase awareness of the benefits of the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and this should be supported by economic analyses exploring the cost effectiveness of routine G6PD testing.

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