Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands

Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith

Alan Andersen, Rudolf Kahout, Colin Trainor

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40%) of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria), and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50%) of endemism in the regional ant fauna.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)139-148
    Number of pages10
    JournalDiversity
    Volume5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

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    Timor
    Indonesia
    Ants
    endemism
    Islands
    biogeography
    ant
    Formicidae
    indigenous species
    fauna
    ecozone
    Invertebrates
    invertebrates
    taxonomy
    invertebrate
    Polyrhachis

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    Andersen, Alan ; Kahout, Rudolf ; Trainor, Colin. / Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands : Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith. In: Diversity. 2013 ; Vol. 5. pp. 139-148.
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    title = "Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands: Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith",
    abstract = "The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40{\%}) of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria), and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50{\%}) of endemism in the regional ant fauna.",
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    author = "Alan Andersen and Rudolf Kahout and Colin Trainor",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.3390/d5010139",
    language = "English",
    volume = "5",
    pages = "139--148",
    journal = "Diversity",
    issn = "1424-2818",
    publisher = "MDPIAG",

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    Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands : Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith. / Andersen, Alan; Kahout, Rudolf; Trainor, Colin.

    In: Diversity, Vol. 5, 2013, p. 139-148.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands

    T2 - Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith

    AU - Andersen, Alan

    AU - Kahout, Rudolf

    AU - Trainor, Colin

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40%) of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria), and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50%) of endemism in the regional ant fauna.

    AB - The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40%) of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria), and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50%) of endemism in the regional ant fauna.

    KW - ant

    KW - endemism

    KW - island biogeography

    KW - new species

    KW - species inventory

    KW - taxonomy

    KW - Lesser Sunda Islands

    KW - Sunda Isles

    KW - Timor

    KW - Wallacea

    KW - Formicidae

    KW - Gabaza

    KW - Invertebrata

    KW - Polyrhachis

    KW - Polyrhachis bicolor

    KW - Polyrhachis constricta

    KW - Polyrhachis cryptoceroides

    KW - Polyrhachis dives

    KW - Polyrhachis gab

    KW - Polyrhachis hera

    KW - Polyrhachis illaudata

    KW - Polyrhachis longipes

    KW - Polyrhachis rixosa

    KW - Polyrhachis saevissima

    KW - Polyrhachis sokolova

    U2 - 10.3390/d5010139

    DO - 10.3390/d5010139

    M3 - Article

    VL - 5

    SP - 139

    EP - 148

    JO - Diversity

    JF - Diversity

    SN - 1424-2818

    ER -