Co-stimulation is a prerequisite for pathogenic activity in T cell-mediated diseases and has been demonstrated to achieve tolerance in organ-specific autoimmunity as a therapeutic target. Here, we evaluated the involvement of the tumor necrosis factor family members CD30 and OX40 in immune-complex mediated kidney disease. In vitro stimulation and proliferation studies were performed with CD4+ cells from wild type and CD30/OX40 double knock-out (CD30OX40-/-) mice. In vivo studies were performed by induction of nephrotoxic serum nephritis in wild type, CD30OX40- /-, CD30-/-, OX40-/-, reconstituted Rag1-/- and C57Bl/6J mice treated with αCD30L αOX40L antibodies. CD30, OX40 and their ligands were upregulated on various leukocytes in nephrotoxic serum nephritis. CD30OX40-/- mice, but not CD30-/- or OX40-/- mice were protected from nephrotoxic serum nephritis. Similar protection was found in Rag1-/- mice injected with CD4+ T cells from CD30OX40-/- mice compared to Rag1-/- mice injected with CD4+ T cells from wild type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ T cells deficient in CD30OX40-/- displayed decreased expression of CCR6 in vivo. CD30OX40-/- cells were fully capable of differentiating into disease mediating T helper cell subsets, but showed significantly decreased levels of proliferation in vivo and in vitro compared to wild type cells. Blocking antibodies against CD30L and OX40L ameliorated nephrotoxic serum nephritis without affecting pan-effector or memory T cell populations. Thus, our results indicate disease promotion via CD30 and OX40 signaling due to facilitation of exaggerated T cell proliferation and migration of T helper 17 cells in nephrotoxic serum nephritis. Hence, co-stimulation blockade targeting the CD30 and OX40 signaling pathways may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in autoimmune kidney disease.