Nowadays, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has remarkably transformed our personal lifestyles and society operations into a novel digital mode, which brings tremendous associations with all walks of life, such as intelligent logistics, smart grid, and smart city. Moreover, with the rapid increase of IIoT devices, a large amount of data is swapped between heterogeneous sensors and devices every moment. This trend increases the risk of eavesdropping and hijacking attacks in communication channels, so maintaining data privacy and security becomes two notable concerns at present. Recently, based on the mechanism of the Schnorr signature, a more secure and lightweight certificateless signature (CLS) protocol is popular for the resource-constrained IIoT protocol design. Nevertheless, we found most of the existing CLS schemes are susceptible to several common security weaknesses such as man-in-the-middle attacks, key generation center compromised attacks, and distributed denial of service attacks. To tackle the challenges mentioned previously, in this article, we propose a novel pairing-free certificateless scheme that utilizes the state-of-the-art blockchain technique and smart contract to construct a novel reliable and efficient CLS scheme. Then, we simulate the Type-I and Type-II adversaries to verify the trustworthiness of our scheme. Security analysis as well as performance evaluation outcomes prove that our design can hold more reliable security assurance with less computation cost (i.e., reduced by around 40.0% at most) and communication cost (i.e., reduced by around 94.7% at most) than other related schemes.