The risk factors for and clinical features of bloodstream infection with uncommon Candida spp. (species other than C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicals and C. krusei) are incompletely defined. To identify clinical variables associated with these species that might guide management, 57 cases of candidaemia resulting from uncommon Candida spp. were analysed in comparison with 517 episodes of Candida albicans candidaemia (2001-2004). Infection with uncommon Candida spp. (5.3% of candidaemia cases), as compared with C. albicans candidaemia, was significantly more likely to be outpatient-acquired than inpatient-acquired (15 of 57 vs. 65 of 517 episodes, p0.01). Prior exposure to fluconazole was uncommon (n =1). Candida dubliniensis was the commonest species (n =22, 39%), followed by Candida guilliermondii (n = 11, 19%) and Candida lusitaniae (n = 7, 12%). C. dubliniensis candidaemia was independently associated with recent intravenous drug use (p0.01) and chronic liver disease (p0.03), and infection with species other than C. dubliniensis was independently associated with age <65 years (p0.02), male sex (p0.03) and human immunodeficiency virus infection (p0.05). Presence of sepsis at diagnosis and crude 30-day mortality rates were similar for C. dubliniensis-related, non- C. dubliniensis-related and C. albicans-related candidaemia. Haematological malignancy was the commonest predisposing factor in C. guilliermondii (n = 3, 27%) and C. lusitaniae (n = 3, 43%) candidaemia. The 30-day mortality rate of C. lusitaniae candidaemia was higher than the overall death rate for all uncommon Candida spp. (42.9% vs. 25%, not significant). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin.B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin; five strains (9%) had fluconazole MIC values of 16-32 mg/L. Candidaemia due to uncommon Candida spp. is emerging among hospital outpatients; certain clinical variables may assist in recognition of this entity.