Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests

Martin Thurner, Christian Beer, Maurizio Santoro, Nuno Carvalhais, Thomas Wutzler, Dmitry Schepaschenko, Anatoly Shvidenko, Elisabeth Kompter, Bernhard Ahrens, Shaun R. Levick, Christiane Schmullius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Aim: To infer a forest carbon density map at 0.01° resolution from a radar remote sensing product for the estimation of carbon stocks in Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests. Location: The study area extends from 30°N to 80°N, covering three forest biomes - temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (TBMF), temperate conifer forests (TCF) and boreal forests (BFT) - over three continents (North America, Europe and Asia). 

Methods: This study is based on a recently available growing stock volume (GSV) product retrieved from synthetic aperture radar data. Forest biomass and spatially explicit uncertainty estimates were derived from the GSV using existing databases of wood density and allometric relationships between biomass compartments (stem, branches, roots, foliage). We tested the resultant map against inventory-based biomass data from Russia, Europe and the USA prior to making intercontinent and interbiome carbon stock comparisons. 

Results: Our derived carbon density map agrees well with inventory data at regional scales (r2=0.70-0.90). While 40.7±15.7 petagram of carbon (PgC) are stored in BFT, TBMF and TCF contain 24.5±9.4PgC and 14.5±4.8 PgC, respectively. In terms of carbon density, we found 6.21±2.07kgC m-2 retained in TCF and 5.80±2.21kgC m-2 in TBMF, whereas BFT have a mean carbon density of 4.00±1.54kgC m-2. Indications of a higher carbon density in Europe compared with the other continents across each of the three biomes could not be proved to be significant. 

Main conclusions: The presented carbon density and corresponding uncertainty map give an insight into the spatial patterns of biomass and stand as a new benchmark to improve carbon cycle models and carbon monitoring systems. In total, we found 79.8±29.9PgC stored in northern boreal and temperate forests, with Asian BFT accounting for 22.1±8.3PgC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-310
Number of pages14
JournalGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes

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temperate forests
temperate forest
boreal forests
carbon sinks
boreal forest
carbon
mixed forests
coniferous forests
mixed forest
biomass
coniferous tree
biome
uncertainty
synthetic aperture radar
ecosystems
radar
wood density
branches
Russia
remote sensing

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Thurner, M., Beer, C., Santoro, M., Carvalhais, N., Wutzler, T., Schepaschenko, D., ... Schmullius, C. (2014). Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23(3), 297-310. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12125
Thurner, Martin ; Beer, Christian ; Santoro, Maurizio ; Carvalhais, Nuno ; Wutzler, Thomas ; Schepaschenko, Dmitry ; Shvidenko, Anatoly ; Kompter, Elisabeth ; Ahrens, Bernhard ; Levick, Shaun R. ; Schmullius, Christiane. / Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests. In: Global Ecology and Biogeography. 2014 ; Vol. 23, No. 3. pp. 297-310.
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abstract = "Aim: To infer a forest carbon density map at 0.01° resolution from a radar remote sensing product for the estimation of carbon stocks in Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests. Location: The study area extends from 30°N to 80°N, covering three forest biomes - temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (TBMF), temperate conifer forests (TCF) and boreal forests (BFT) - over three continents (North America, Europe and Asia). Methods: This study is based on a recently available growing stock volume (GSV) product retrieved from synthetic aperture radar data. Forest biomass and spatially explicit uncertainty estimates were derived from the GSV using existing databases of wood density and allometric relationships between biomass compartments (stem, branches, roots, foliage). We tested the resultant map against inventory-based biomass data from Russia, Europe and the USA prior to making intercontinent and interbiome carbon stock comparisons. Results: Our derived carbon density map agrees well with inventory data at regional scales (r2=0.70-0.90). While 40.7±15.7 petagram of carbon (PgC) are stored in BFT, TBMF and TCF contain 24.5±9.4PgC and 14.5±4.8 PgC, respectively. In terms of carbon density, we found 6.21±2.07kgC m-2 retained in TCF and 5.80±2.21kgC m-2 in TBMF, whereas BFT have a mean carbon density of 4.00±1.54kgC m-2. Indications of a higher carbon density in Europe compared with the other continents across each of the three biomes could not be proved to be significant. Main conclusions: The presented carbon density and corresponding uncertainty map give an insight into the spatial patterns of biomass and stand as a new benchmark to improve carbon cycle models and carbon monitoring systems. In total, we found 79.8±29.9PgC stored in northern boreal and temperate forests, with Asian BFT accounting for 22.1±8.3PgC.",
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Thurner, M, Beer, C, Santoro, M, Carvalhais, N, Wutzler, T, Schepaschenko, D, Shvidenko, A, Kompter, E, Ahrens, B, Levick, SR & Schmullius, C 2014, 'Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests', Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 297-310. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12125

Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests. / Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Santoro, Maurizio; Carvalhais, Nuno; Wutzler, Thomas; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Kompter, Elisabeth; Ahrens, Bernhard; Levick, Shaun R.; Schmullius, Christiane.

In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3, 03.2014, p. 297-310.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests

AU - Thurner, Martin

AU - Beer, Christian

AU - Santoro, Maurizio

AU - Carvalhais, Nuno

AU - Wutzler, Thomas

AU - Schepaschenko, Dmitry

AU - Shvidenko, Anatoly

AU - Kompter, Elisabeth

AU - Ahrens, Bernhard

AU - Levick, Shaun R.

AU - Schmullius, Christiane

PY - 2014/3

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N2 - Aim: To infer a forest carbon density map at 0.01° resolution from a radar remote sensing product for the estimation of carbon stocks in Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests. Location: The study area extends from 30°N to 80°N, covering three forest biomes - temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (TBMF), temperate conifer forests (TCF) and boreal forests (BFT) - over three continents (North America, Europe and Asia). Methods: This study is based on a recently available growing stock volume (GSV) product retrieved from synthetic aperture radar data. Forest biomass and spatially explicit uncertainty estimates were derived from the GSV using existing databases of wood density and allometric relationships between biomass compartments (stem, branches, roots, foliage). We tested the resultant map against inventory-based biomass data from Russia, Europe and the USA prior to making intercontinent and interbiome carbon stock comparisons. Results: Our derived carbon density map agrees well with inventory data at regional scales (r2=0.70-0.90). While 40.7±15.7 petagram of carbon (PgC) are stored in BFT, TBMF and TCF contain 24.5±9.4PgC and 14.5±4.8 PgC, respectively. In terms of carbon density, we found 6.21±2.07kgC m-2 retained in TCF and 5.80±2.21kgC m-2 in TBMF, whereas BFT have a mean carbon density of 4.00±1.54kgC m-2. Indications of a higher carbon density in Europe compared with the other continents across each of the three biomes could not be proved to be significant. Main conclusions: The presented carbon density and corresponding uncertainty map give an insight into the spatial patterns of biomass and stand as a new benchmark to improve carbon cycle models and carbon monitoring systems. In total, we found 79.8±29.9PgC stored in northern boreal and temperate forests, with Asian BFT accounting for 22.1±8.3PgC.

AB - Aim: To infer a forest carbon density map at 0.01° resolution from a radar remote sensing product for the estimation of carbon stocks in Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests. Location: The study area extends from 30°N to 80°N, covering three forest biomes - temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (TBMF), temperate conifer forests (TCF) and boreal forests (BFT) - over three continents (North America, Europe and Asia). Methods: This study is based on a recently available growing stock volume (GSV) product retrieved from synthetic aperture radar data. Forest biomass and spatially explicit uncertainty estimates were derived from the GSV using existing databases of wood density and allometric relationships between biomass compartments (stem, branches, roots, foliage). We tested the resultant map against inventory-based biomass data from Russia, Europe and the USA prior to making intercontinent and interbiome carbon stock comparisons. Results: Our derived carbon density map agrees well with inventory data at regional scales (r2=0.70-0.90). While 40.7±15.7 petagram of carbon (PgC) are stored in BFT, TBMF and TCF contain 24.5±9.4PgC and 14.5±4.8 PgC, respectively. In terms of carbon density, we found 6.21±2.07kgC m-2 retained in TCF and 5.80±2.21kgC m-2 in TBMF, whereas BFT have a mean carbon density of 4.00±1.54kgC m-2. Indications of a higher carbon density in Europe compared with the other continents across each of the three biomes could not be proved to be significant. Main conclusions: The presented carbon density and corresponding uncertainty map give an insight into the spatial patterns of biomass and stand as a new benchmark to improve carbon cycle models and carbon monitoring systems. In total, we found 79.8±29.9PgC stored in northern boreal and temperate forests, with Asian BFT accounting for 22.1±8.3PgC.

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KW - Carbon monitoring

KW - Forest biomass

KW - Forest carbon stocks

KW - Global carbon cycle

KW - Growing stock volume

KW - SAR remote sensing

KW - Temperate forest

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Thurner M, Beer C, Santoro M, Carvalhais N, Wutzler T, Schepaschenko D et al. Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 2014 Mar;23(3):297-310. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12125