Categorising use patterns of non-marine environments by elasmobranchs and a review of their extinction risk

Michael I. Grant, Peter M. Kyne, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, William T. White, Andrew Chin

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    As the state of non-marine aquatic environments (freshwater and estuarine environments with salinities ≤ 30 ppt) continues to decline globally, there is increasing concern for elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) that use them at critical stages of their life history. Due to a range of impediments including unresolved taxonomy, lack of fisheries data, and poor public perception, our knowledge of elasmobranchs in non-marine environments has lagged behind marine species. Here, we refine previous categorisations of elasmobranchs that occur in non-marine environments by reviewing the timing and duration of freshwater (≤ 5ppt) and/or estuarine (> 5 to ≤ 30 ppt) habitat use throughout each species’ life history. We identified five categories describing elasmobranchs in non-marine environments: (1) freshwater obligates (43 spp.); (2) euryhaline generalists (10 spp.); (3) estuarine generalists (19 spp.); (4) non-marine transients; (5) non-marine vagrants. Criteria for species inclusion is provided for all categories, and species lists are presented for categories 1–3. Euryhaline and estuarine generalists had the highest number of species that are threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (50% and 65%, respectively), and freshwater obligate species have a very high portion of Data Deficient and Not Evaluated species (77%). The refinement of non-marine elasmobranch categories will aid in our understanding of elasmobranchs that occur in non-marine environments, helping facilitate more strategic conservation and management initiatives. Research on the biology of elasmobranchs and their human interactions in non-marine environments are suggested, as this will lead to better availability of information for conservation and management.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)689-710
    Number of pages22
    JournalReviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
    Volume29
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019

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    extinction risk
    extinction
    generalist
    life history
    aquatic environment
    threatened species
    sharks
    freshwater environment
    Red List
    estuarine environment
    shark
    fisheries
    habitat use
    salinity
    taxonomy
    Biological Sciences
    duration
    fishery
    habitats

    Cite this

    Grant, Michael I. ; Kyne, Peter M. ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; White, William T. ; Chin, Andrew. / Categorising use patterns of non-marine environments by elasmobranchs and a review of their extinction risk. In: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 2019 ; Vol. 29, No. 3. pp. 689-710.
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    title = "Categorising use patterns of non-marine environments by elasmobranchs and a review of their extinction risk",
    abstract = "As the state of non-marine aquatic environments (freshwater and estuarine environments with salinities ≤ 30 ppt) continues to decline globally, there is increasing concern for elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) that use them at critical stages of their life history. Due to a range of impediments including unresolved taxonomy, lack of fisheries data, and poor public perception, our knowledge of elasmobranchs in non-marine environments has lagged behind marine species. Here, we refine previous categorisations of elasmobranchs that occur in non-marine environments by reviewing the timing and duration of freshwater (≤ 5ppt) and/or estuarine (> 5 to ≤ 30 ppt) habitat use throughout each species’ life history. We identified five categories describing elasmobranchs in non-marine environments: (1) freshwater obligates (43 spp.); (2) euryhaline generalists (10 spp.); (3) estuarine generalists (19 spp.); (4) non-marine transients; (5) non-marine vagrants. Criteria for species inclusion is provided for all categories, and species lists are presented for categories 1–3. Euryhaline and estuarine generalists had the highest number of species that are threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (50{\%} and 65{\%}, respectively), and freshwater obligate species have a very high portion of Data Deficient and Not Evaluated species (77{\%}). The refinement of non-marine elasmobranch categories will aid in our understanding of elasmobranchs that occur in non-marine environments, helping facilitate more strategic conservation and management initiatives. Research on the biology of elasmobranchs and their human interactions in non-marine environments are suggested, as this will lead to better availability of information for conservation and management.",
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    Categorising use patterns of non-marine environments by elasmobranchs and a review of their extinction risk. / Grant, Michael I.; Kyne, Peter M.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.; Chin, Andrew.

    In: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, Vol. 29, No. 3, 01.09.2019, p. 689-710.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Categorising use patterns of non-marine environments by elasmobranchs and a review of their extinction risk

    AU - Grant, Michael I.

    AU - Kyne, Peter M.

    AU - Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    AU - White, William T.

    AU - Chin, Andrew

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    AB - As the state of non-marine aquatic environments (freshwater and estuarine environments with salinities ≤ 30 ppt) continues to decline globally, there is increasing concern for elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) that use them at critical stages of their life history. Due to a range of impediments including unresolved taxonomy, lack of fisheries data, and poor public perception, our knowledge of elasmobranchs in non-marine environments has lagged behind marine species. Here, we refine previous categorisations of elasmobranchs that occur in non-marine environments by reviewing the timing and duration of freshwater (≤ 5ppt) and/or estuarine (> 5 to ≤ 30 ppt) habitat use throughout each species’ life history. We identified five categories describing elasmobranchs in non-marine environments: (1) freshwater obligates (43 spp.); (2) euryhaline generalists (10 spp.); (3) estuarine generalists (19 spp.); (4) non-marine transients; (5) non-marine vagrants. Criteria for species inclusion is provided for all categories, and species lists are presented for categories 1–3. Euryhaline and estuarine generalists had the highest number of species that are threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (50% and 65%, respectively), and freshwater obligate species have a very high portion of Data Deficient and Not Evaluated species (77%). The refinement of non-marine elasmobranch categories will aid in our understanding of elasmobranchs that occur in non-marine environments, helping facilitate more strategic conservation and management initiatives. Research on the biology of elasmobranchs and their human interactions in non-marine environments are suggested, as this will lead to better availability of information for conservation and management.

    KW - Conservation

    KW - Elasmobranchs

    KW - Estuaries

    KW - Euryhaline

    KW - Freshwater

    KW - Management

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    U2 - 10.1007/s11160-019-09576-w

    DO - 10.1007/s11160-019-09576-w

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