Freshwater mussels play key roles in aquatic ecosystems, but are experiencing a global decline. Although studies have reported high acute sensitivity of mussels to some contaminants, chronic toxicity data are lacking for deriving high-reliability water quality guideline values. Ammonia is a contaminant of potential concern in some catchments of tropical northern Australia, where freshwater mussels are important ecological and cultural components. The extremely soft waters (hardness < 5 mg/L) of these environments can result in increased toxicity of many contaminants including ammonia, and regionally relevant tropical guideline values are needed to adequately protect these unique ecosystems. An optimized 14-d toxicity test protocol was used to assess the chronic toxicity of ammonia for 2 species, the lotic Velesunio sp. and the lentic Velesunio angasi. Ammonia exposures were conducted at pH 6.0 and 27 ± 0.5 °C to represent local environmental conditions, using shell length growth rate as the endpoint. Chronic toxicity estimates indicated high sensitivity to ammonia, with mean median effect concentrations (in total ammonia nitrogen) being 7.0 mg/L for V. angasi from the semi-urbanized Lake Bennett, 9.2 mg/L for V. angasi from Sandy Billabong, and 11.3 mg/L for Velesunio sp. from Gulungul Creek. When the 10% effect concentration values were compared with other chronic ammonia data (normalized to pH 7.0 and 20 °C), Velesunio spp. were found to be more sensitive than 8 of 16 other temperate and 7 of 9 tropical invertebrate and fish species. These chronic toxicity estimates will be used to further inform regionally relevant and site-specific guideline values. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;9999:1–11.