Clinical characteristics of hospitalised children with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in the Top End of Australia

Hae Young C. Chong, Te Yu Hung, Anja Hohls, Joshua R. Francis, Swasti Chaturvedi

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Abstract

Aims: Despite the declining incidence of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) in Australia, there is still a significant burden of disease amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory. Childhood APSGN has been highlighted as a predictor of chronic kidney disease in this population. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised children with APSGN in the Northern Territory. Methods: Single-centre, retrospective cohort study of children (<18 years) with APSGN admitted to a tertiary hospital in the Top End of the Northern Territory between January 2012 and December 2017. Cases were confirmed using the Centre for Disease Control case definition guidelines. Data were extracted from the case notes and electronic medical records. Results: There were 96 cases of APSGN with median age of 7.1 years (interquartile range (IQR) 6.7–11.4). Majority were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (90.6%) and from rural and remote areas (82.3%). Preceding skin infections were identified in 65.5% and sore throat in 27.1%. Severe complications included hypertensive emergencies (37.4%), acute kidney injury (43.8%) and nephrotic-range proteinuria (57.7%). All children improved from their acute illness with supportive medical therapy; however, only 55 out of 96 (57.3%) children were followed up within 12 months of their acute illness. Conclusions: APSGN disproportionately affects Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and highlights the need for continued and improved public health response. There is room for significant improvement in the medium- and long-term follow-up of affected children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)735-742
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Volume59
Issue number5
Early online dateMar 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

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