Objective: Community based models for injury prevention have become an accepted part of the overall injury control strategy. This systematic review of the scientific literature examines the evidence for their effectiveness in preventing poisoning in children 0-15 years of age. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was performed using the following study selection criteria: community based intervention study; target population was children under 15 years; outcome measure was poisoning rates; and either a community control or an historical control was used in the study design. Quality assessment and data abstraction were guided by a standardized procedure and performed independently by two authors. Data synthesis was in tabular and text form with meta-analysis not being possible due to the discrepancy in methods and measures between the studies. Results: The review found only four studies, which met all the inclusion criteria. Only two studies used a trial design with a contemporary control and only one study provided convincing evidence of an effective community program for reducing poisoning in children. Conclusion: There is a paucity of research studies in the literature from which evidence regarding the effectiveness of community based childhood poisoning prevention programs can be obtained and hence a clear need to increase the effort on developing this evidence base.