Decentralized and Privacy-Preserving Smart Parking with Secure Repetition and Full Verifiability

Meng Li, Mingwei Zhang, Liehuang Zhu, Zijian Zhang, Mauro Conti, Mamoun Alazab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Smart Parking Services (SPSs) enable cruising drivers to find the nearest parking lot with available spots, reducing the traveling time, gas, and traffic congestion. However, drivers risk the exposure of sensitive location data during parking query to an untrusted Smart Parking Service Provider (SPSP). Our motivation arises from a repetitive query to an updated database, i.e., how a driver can be repetitively paired with a previously-matched-but-forgotten lot. Meanwhile, we aim to achieve repetitive query in an oblivious and unlinkable manner. In this work, we present Mnemosyne2 : decentralized and privacy-preserving smart parking with secure repetition and full verifiability. Specifically, we design repetitive, oblivious, and unlinkable Secure k Nearest Neighbor (SkNN) with basic verifiability (correctness and completeness) for encrypted-andupdated databases. We build a local Ethereum blockchain to perform driver-lot matching via smart contracts. To adapt to the lot count update, we resort to the immutable blockchain for advanced verifiability (truthfulness). Last, we utilize decentralized blacklistable anonymous credentials to guarantee identity privacy. Finally, we formally define and prove privacy and security. We conduct extensive experiments over a real-world dataset and compare Mnemosyne2 with existing work. The results show that a query only needs 8 seconds (175 ms) on average for service waiting (verification) among 500 drivers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


Dive into the research topics of 'Decentralized and Privacy-Preserving Smart Parking with Secure Repetition and Full Verifiability'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this