Early detection through whole-body Skin Self-Examination (wbSSE) may decrease mortality from melanoma. Using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) or Health Belief Model (HBM) we aimed to assess determinants of uptake of wbSSE in 410 men 50 years of older who participated in the control group of a randomized trial. Overall, the HAPA was a significantly better predictor of wbSSE compared to the HBM (p <.001). The construct of self-efficacy in the HBM was a significant predictor of future wbSSE (p =.001), while neither perceived threat (p =.584) nor outcome expectations (p =.220) were. In contrast, self-efficacy, perceived threat, and outcome expectations predicted intention to perform SSE, which predicted behavior (p =.015). The HAPA construct volitional self-efficacy was also associated with wbSSE (p =.046). The use of the HAPA model for future SSE interventions for this population is warranted.