Development and validation of an environmental DNA test for the endangered Gouldian finch

Kimberley Day, Hamish Campbell, Alaric Fisher, Karen Gibb, Brydie Hill, Alea Rose, Simon N. Jarman

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    Abstract

    Detecting animals by identifying their DNA in water is a valuable tool for locating and monitoring species that are difficult to detect through other survey techniques. We developed a test for detecting the endangered Gouldian finch Erythrura gouldiae, a small bird endemic to northern Australia. Only 1 previous study has reported an environmental DNA (eDNA) test that unequivocally identifies a bird species using the water bodies from which they drink. In controlled aviary trials with a pair of Gouldian finches, first detection in 200 ml of water occurred after as little as 6 h, but the detection rate was higher at 30 h. DNA persisted in water exposed to the sun for <12 h and in the shade for 12 h. In trials with 55 finches, persistence was up to 144 h. The eDNA test for finches and the Gouldian finch-specific test were positive for waterholes where Gouldian and other finch species were observed each morning over 3 d. Importantly, where no Gouldian finches were observed for up to 72 h prior to water sampling, the Gouldian test was negative. Where other species of finch but no Gouldian finch were observed and counted, the finch test was positive, but the Gouldian finch test was negative. This approach could be developed for broadscale monitoring of this endangered species, and potentially applied to a much broader range of terrestrial species that shed DNA into water bodies.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number0987
    Pages (from-to)171-182
    Number of pages12
    JournalEndangered Species Research
    Volume40
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2019

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