Background: Almost 15% of India's urban adult populace now lives with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to characterize the eating patterns, knowledge, beliefs, and determinants of food choice, and assess associations with the metabolic health among urban Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 258 individuals (mean age 55.7 ± 10 years; body mass index 27.1 ± 4.8 kg/m2 ; diabetes duration 10.1 ± 6.5 years) attending two out-patient clinics in New Delhi, India. Food-related information was collected during a semi-structured interview. Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were recorded.
Results: Beliefs related to health and diabetes played a role determining food choice and dietary patterns; erroneous views were associated with the poor food choices and greater metabolic perturbations. Average consumption of fruits/vegetables was low. Intakes were positively associated with intentions to manage diabetes; inversely associated with the waist circumference and negatively correlated with one's degree of personal responsibility for food choice. Household saturated fat usage was common. High fat intakes were positively associated with the taste preference, ratings of perceived "health-value;" waist circumference, glycosylated haemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%) and lipids.
Conclusions: Strategies to enhance diabetes control among Asian Indians are required and should encourage fruit/vegetable intake, personal accountability, and consider individual beliefs and preferences. Greater emphasis and resources directed to regular dietary and behavioral counseling may assist.`