Objective: This survey examined and compared the disaster perception and preparedness of 2421 residents with and without chronic disease in Shenzhen, China. Methods: The participants were recruited and were asked to complete a survey in 2018. Results: Three types of disasters considered most likely to happen in Shenzhen were: typhoons (73.5% vs 74.9%), major transport accidents (61.5% vs 64.7%), and major fires (60.8% vs 63.0%). Only 5.9% and 5% of them, respectively, considered infectious diseases pandemics to be likely. There were significant differences between those with and without chronic disease in disaster preparedness, only a small percentage could be considered to have prepared for disaster (20.7% vs 14.5%). Logistic regression analyses showed that those aged 65 or older (odds ratio [OR] = 2.76), who had attained a Master's degree or higher (OR = 2.0), and with chronic disease (OR = 1.38) were more prepared for disasters. Conclusions: Although participants with chronic disease were better prepared than those without, overall, Shenzhen residents were inadequately prepared for disasters and in need of public education.