Distribution of Phosphorus Fractions in Orchard Soils in Relation to Soil Properties and Foliar P Contents

Sumera Bibi, Muhammad Irshad, Muhammad Mohiuddin, Sadaf Sher, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman Tariq, Anne Wai Man Ng

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Phosphorus (P) fractionation is the validation of the nature, solubility and relative bioavailability of P. A sequential P extraction was used to determine the distribution of plant-available P fractions in soils. The relationships of these P fractions to soil properties and foliar P contents were also determined. Results of this study showed substantial differences in soil properties among orchards. Higher amounts of soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and major plant nutrients were found under orchard soils when compared with control soil. Most of the soil variables varied among orchard species as loquat > citrus > guava. The orchard soil exhibited a slightly higher soil pH. Overall, the P fractions were higher in all types of orchard soils and lowered in the control soils. Among tree species, P fractions in soils were achieved as loquat > citrus > guava. The extracting agents differed for P in the order residual P > HCl-P > NaOH-P > NaHCO3-P > H2O-P. Mostly higher amounts of the P fractions were achieved in the topsoil. The average amount of extractable P was found significantly higher in those soils of fruit orchards where the total amount of P was actually higher. The higher r2 values between P fractions versus SOM, clay and CEC of soils predicted a strong interrelationship among these soil variables. Leaf N contents of loquat and guava trees were consistently higher, and leaf P contents varied as loquat > citrus > guava. Potassium and Ca contents were higher in citrus than in the other two species. Micronutrients were found as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu in the leaves. Regression models indicated a sufficient relationship between Hedley P fractions and the foliar P contents in tree species. This study indicates that the above soil properties can be used to ascertain soil P fractions, and that can influence the bioavailability of P from orchard soils.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3966
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


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