Recent focus on Culicoides species diversity in Thailand was prompted by a need to identify vectors responsible for the transmission of African Horse Sickness in that country. To assist rapid genetic identification of species, we sampled mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcodes (N = 78) from 40 species of Culicoides biting midge from Thailand, including 17 species for which DNA barcodes were previously unavailable. The DNA barcodes were assigned to 39 Barcode Identification Numbers (BINs) representing terminal genetic clusters at the Barcode of Life Data systems (BOLD). BINs assisted with comparisons to published conspecific DNA barcodes and allowed partial barcodes obtained from seven specimens to be associated with BINs by their similarity. Some taxonomic issues were revealed and attributed to the possible misidentification of earlier reported specimens as well as a potential synonymy of C. elbeli Wirth & Hubert and C. menglaensis Chu & Liu. Comparison with published BINs also revealed genetic evidence of divergent population processes and or potentially cryptic species in 16 described taxa, flagged by their high levels of COI sequence difference among conspecifics. We recommend the BOLD BIN system to researchers preparing DNA barcodes of vouchered species for public release. This will alert them to taxonomic incongruencies between their records and publicly released DNA barcodes, and also flag genetically deep and potentially novel diversity in described species.