Determining plant-water relationships in response to drought events can provide important information about the adaptation of trees to climate change. The Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv), as one of the major tree species to control soil loss and desertification in northern China, has experienced severe degradation in recent decades. Here, we aimed to examine the impacts of a two-year consecutive drought and another year of drought on the radial growth, transpiration, and canopy stomatal conductance of Mongolian Scots pine over a five-year period, especially in terms of its recovery after drought. The study period during 2013-2017 consisted of a 'normal' year, a 'dry year', a 'very dry' year, a 'wet' year, and a 'dry' year, according to annual precipitation and soil moisture conditions. Based on measurements of the sap flow and diameters at breast height of 11 sample trees as well as the concurrent environmental factors, we quantified the reductions in tree radial growth, transpiration, and canopy stomatal conductance during the drought development as well as their recovery after the drought. The results showed that the tree radial growth, transpiration, and canopy stomatal conductance of Mongolian Scots pines decreased by 33.8%, 51.9%, and 51.5%, respectively, due to the two consecutive years of drought. Moreover, these reductions did not fully recover after the two-year drought was relieved. The minimum difference of these parameters between before and after the two-year consecutive drought period was 8.5% in tree radial growth, 45.1% in transpiration levels, and 42.4% in canopy stomatal conductance. We concluded that the two consecutive years of drought resulted in not only large reductions in tree radial growth and water use, but also their lagged and limited recoveries after drought. The study also highlighted the limited resilience of Mongolian Scots pine trees to prolonged drought in semi-arid sandy environmental conditions.