Mangrove forest ecosystems covered 13.8 million ha of tropical shorelines in 2000 (Giri et al. 2011), down from 19.8 million ha in 1980 and 15.9 million ha in 1990 (FAO 2003). These losses represent about 2 per cent per year from 1980 to 1990 and 1 per cent per year from 1990 to 2000. Therefore, achieving no net loss of mangroves worldwide would require the successful restoration of approximately 150,000 ha per year, unless all major losses of mangroves ceased. Increasing the total area of mangroves worldwide towards their original extent would require an even larger effort (Lewis in Bozzano et al. 2014).
|Title of host publication||Routledge Handbook of Ecological and Environmental Restoration|
|Editors||Stuart Allison, Stephen Murphy|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis|
|Number of pages||17|
|Publication status||Published - 18 May 2017|