Purpose To avoid the nursing risk of inpatients, reduce the occurrence of nursing errors and improve the safety of inpatients. Methods We established a nursing risk early warning and control system, which includes a safety supervisory network, risk screening and early warning tools, and a risk control process. Results The qualified rates of risk control measures to prevent pressure ulcers, unplanned extubation and fall/fall from bed all increased. The incidence of reported nursing errors decreased. The number of mistakes in medication-giving decreased. Conclusion The establishment of an inpatient early warning and control system could effectively avoid nursing risk, improve risk prevention abilities, improve patient safety, and improve nursing quality.