A phenomenological approach is applied to derive the light yield of a scintillator as a function of the rates of various radiative and nonradiative linear and nonlinear processes that may occur within the track. The effect of evolution of the excitation concentration within the track is studied. It is found out that an exciton formation time less than a ns can lead to minimizing the nonproportionality in scintillators.
Singh, J., Williams, R., Koblov, A., & Surovtseva, D. (2014). Effect of time-dependent local excitonic concentration in the track on nonproportionality in light yield of inorganic scintillators. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 61(1), 252-256. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2013.2280011