Methods and results: Patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to perindopril–indapamide (4 mg/1.25 mg) or placebo. Treatment effects on cardiovascular (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and renal outcomes were compared in subgroups defined by baseline Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative CKD stage. Homogeneity in treatment effect was tested by adding interaction terms to the relevant Cox models. The study included 10 640 participants with known CKD status, of whom 6125 did not have CKD, 2482 were classified as CKD stage 1 or 2, and 2033 as CKD stage ≥3. The relative treatment effects on major cardiovascular events were similar across all stages of CKD, with no heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effects for any outcome. In contrast, the absolute treatment effects approximately doubled in those with CKD stage ≥3 when compared to those with no CKD. For every 1000 patients with CKD stage ≥3 treated for 5 years, active treatment prevented 12 cardiovascular events when compared with six events per 1000 patients with no CKD.
Conclusion: The treatment benefits of a routine administration of a fixed combination of perindopril–indapamide to patients with type 2 diabetes on cardiovascular and renal outcomes, and death, are consistent across all stages of CKD at baseline. Absolute risk reductions are larger in patients with CKD highlighting the importance of blood pressure-lowering in this population.