Electrophilic cleavage of cyclopropylmethystannanes

An experimental comparison of σ-σ and σ-π conjugation

Andrew J. Lucke, David J. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

(Chemical Equation Presented) Cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannanes undergo electrophilic cyclopropane cleavage in chloroform with simple inorganic electrophiles (H+, SO2, I2) in a homologous reaction to the SE′ cleavage of allylic stannanes. The σ-σ conjugation between the carbon-tin bond and cyclopropane orbitals observed spectroscopically in the parent cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannane is responsible for a rate enhancement of ca. 102 toward iodinolysis, relative to comparable alkyl stannanes. This acceleration is considerably less, however, than the ca. 109-fold rate enhancement provided by the corresponding σ-π conjugation in allylic stannanes. Methanol-tin coordination appears to reduce the activating influence of the metal, promoting methyl cleavage over cyclopropane fission with acid and iodine. Decreased σ-σ conjugation can also explain the decreased reactivity of cyclopropyltriphenylstannane compared with its trimethyltin counterpart. Cyclopropylmethylstannanes do not undergo the synthetically useful addition of aldehydes under conditions that facilitate the corresponding reaction of allylic stannanes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3579-3583
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume70
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Apr 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Tin
Chloroform
Aldehydes
Iodine
Methanol
Carbon
Metals
Acids
stannane
cyclopropane
trimethyltin
cyclopropylmethylstannane

Cite this

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title = "Electrophilic cleavage of cyclopropylmethystannanes: An experimental comparison of σ-σ and σ-π conjugation",
abstract = "(Chemical Equation Presented) Cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannanes undergo electrophilic cyclopropane cleavage in chloroform with simple inorganic electrophiles (H+, SO2, I2) in a homologous reaction to the SE′ cleavage of allylic stannanes. The σ-σ conjugation between the carbon-tin bond and cyclopropane orbitals observed spectroscopically in the parent cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannane is responsible for a rate enhancement of ca. 102 toward iodinolysis, relative to comparable alkyl stannanes. This acceleration is considerably less, however, than the ca. 109-fold rate enhancement provided by the corresponding σ-π conjugation in allylic stannanes. Methanol-tin coordination appears to reduce the activating influence of the metal, promoting methyl cleavage over cyclopropane fission with acid and iodine. Decreased σ-σ conjugation can also explain the decreased reactivity of cyclopropyltriphenylstannane compared with its trimethyltin counterpart. Cyclopropylmethylstannanes do not undergo the synthetically useful addition of aldehydes under conditions that facilitate the corresponding reaction of allylic stannanes.",
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Electrophilic cleavage of cyclopropylmethystannanes : An experimental comparison of σ-σ and σ-π conjugation. / Lucke, Andrew J.; Young, David J.

In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 70, No. 9, 29.04.2005, p. 3579-3583.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrophilic cleavage of cyclopropylmethystannanes

T2 - An experimental comparison of σ-σ and σ-π conjugation

AU - Lucke, Andrew J.

AU - Young, David J.

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Y1 - 2005/4/29

N2 - (Chemical Equation Presented) Cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannanes undergo electrophilic cyclopropane cleavage in chloroform with simple inorganic electrophiles (H+, SO2, I2) in a homologous reaction to the SE′ cleavage of allylic stannanes. The σ-σ conjugation between the carbon-tin bond and cyclopropane orbitals observed spectroscopically in the parent cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannane is responsible for a rate enhancement of ca. 102 toward iodinolysis, relative to comparable alkyl stannanes. This acceleration is considerably less, however, than the ca. 109-fold rate enhancement provided by the corresponding σ-π conjugation in allylic stannanes. Methanol-tin coordination appears to reduce the activating influence of the metal, promoting methyl cleavage over cyclopropane fission with acid and iodine. Decreased σ-σ conjugation can also explain the decreased reactivity of cyclopropyltriphenylstannane compared with its trimethyltin counterpart. Cyclopropylmethylstannanes do not undergo the synthetically useful addition of aldehydes under conditions that facilitate the corresponding reaction of allylic stannanes.

AB - (Chemical Equation Presented) Cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannanes undergo electrophilic cyclopropane cleavage in chloroform with simple inorganic electrophiles (H+, SO2, I2) in a homologous reaction to the SE′ cleavage of allylic stannanes. The σ-σ conjugation between the carbon-tin bond and cyclopropane orbitals observed spectroscopically in the parent cyclopropylmethyltrimethylstannane is responsible for a rate enhancement of ca. 102 toward iodinolysis, relative to comparable alkyl stannanes. This acceleration is considerably less, however, than the ca. 109-fold rate enhancement provided by the corresponding σ-π conjugation in allylic stannanes. Methanol-tin coordination appears to reduce the activating influence of the metal, promoting methyl cleavage over cyclopropane fission with acid and iodine. Decreased σ-σ conjugation can also explain the decreased reactivity of cyclopropyltriphenylstannane compared with its trimethyltin counterpart. Cyclopropylmethylstannanes do not undergo the synthetically useful addition of aldehydes under conditions that facilitate the corresponding reaction of allylic stannanes.

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