Environmental Income and Rural Livelihoods: A Global-Comparative Analysis

Arild Angelsen, Pamela Jagger, Ronnie Babigumira, Brian Belcher, Nicholas Hogarth, Simone Bauch, Jan Borner, Carsten Smith-Hall, Sven Wunder

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    This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR's Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but differences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles. � 2014 The Authors. Publishedby Elsevier Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)S12-S28
    Number of pages17
    JournalWorld Development
    Issue numberS1
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


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