Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Riau Province, Indonesia

Dewi Anggraini, Fajri Marindra Siregar, Dani Rosdiana, Rahmat Azhari Kemal, Indra Yovi, Zhana Daisya Triani, Novira Jasmin, Norsila Dwijelita, Jessica R. Webb, Mark Mayo, Mirjam Kaestli, Bart J. Currie

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Abstract

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, that is common in tropical and subtropical countries including Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The magnitude of undiagnosed and untreated melioidosis across the country remains unclear. Given its proximity to regions with high infection rates, Riau Province on Sumatera Island is anticipated to have endemic melioidosis. This study reports retrospectively collected data on 68 culture-confirmed melioidosis cases from two hospitals in Riau Province between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2021, with full clinical data available on 41 cases. We also describe whole genome sequencing and genotypic analysis of six isolates of B. pseudomallei. The mean age of the melioidosis patients was 49.1 (SD 11.5) years, 85% were male and the most common risk factor was diabetes mellitus (78%). Pulmonary infection was the most common presentation (39%), and overall mortality was 41%. Lung as a focal infection (aOR: 6.43; 95% CI: 1.13-36.59, p = 0.036) and bacteremia (aOR: 15.21; 95% CI: 2.59-89.31, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with death. Multilocus sequence typing analysis conducted on six B. pseudomallei genomes identified three sequence types (STs), namely novel ST1794 (n = 3), ST46 (n = 2), and ST289 (n = 1). A phylogenetic tree of Riau B. pseudomallei whole genome sequences with a global dataset of genomes clearly distinguished the genomes of B. pseudomallei in Indonesia from the ancestral Australian clade and classified them within the Asian clade. This study expands the known presence of B. pseudomallei within Indonesia and confirms that Indonesian B. pseudomallei are genetically linked to those in the rest of Southeast Asia. It is anticipated that melioidosis will be found in other locations across Indonesia as laboratory capacities improve and standardized protocols for detecting and confirming suspected cases of melioidosis are more widely implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0012195
Pages (from-to)e0012195
Number of pages14
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume18
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024

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© 2024 Anggraini et al.

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