Estimates of Antibacterial Consumption in Timor-Leste Using Distribution Data and Variation in Municipality Usage Patterns

Lisa Harris, Alexander Bongers, Jennifer Yan, Joshua R. Francis, Ian Marr, Susanna Lake, Santana Martins

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    The association between antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial usage has become a growing global concern. Many lower-middle income countries including Timor-Leste (TL) have limited information on antimicrobial usage, although recent research suggests increasing resistance rates among human pathogens there. The aim of this study was to use distribution data to estimate antibiotic consumption at both the national and sub-national level in Timor-Leste, stratifying into resistance class and adherence to the national essential medicines list (EML) and WHO AWaRe guidelines. A retrospective review of distribution data from Timor-Leste central medical store (SAMES) was under-taken to give a defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day using WHO methodology. National antibiotic distribution in the TL EML in 2019 was estimated at 11.1 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day, comparable to consumption rates observed in other lower-middle-income countries using similar methodology. Differences in distribution quantities were noted between municipalities, with 4 of the 13 municipalities notably above the national average and around 32% of listed restricted antimicrobials distributed incongruent with the EML. This study provides insights into estimated antimicrobial consumption in Timor-Leste that has previously been poorly defined. Estimates of consumption can be used to understand emerging resistance in this small island nation, add to the body of knowledge on antimicrobial use to advise policy and guideline development, and help with stewardship activities.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1468
    Pages (from-to)1-11
    Number of pages11
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


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