Explaining conifer dominance in Afrotemperate forests

Shade tolerance favours Podocarpus latifolius over angiosperm species

H ADIE, Michael Lawes

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    We contrasted the regeneration success of angiosperm canopy species with that of Podocarpus latifolius to test whether this conifer was sufficiently shade tolerant to be favoured on infrequently disturbed and well-shaded sites. Seedling and sapling population structures were measured in several habitats representing a light gradient in warm temperate forest in the Drakenberg mountains of South Africa. The angiosperm-dominated forest was well-shaded (?5.5% PAR) and lacked ground vegetation. Seedlings of angiosperm canopy species were abundant but the absence of saplings indicated regeneration failure. In contrast, P. latifolius was represented by all size classes beneath the intact canopy indicating continuous regeneration in angiosperm-dominated forest. Angiosperm regeneration was similarly poor in forest gaps, which were dominated by grasses, ferns and vines. P. latifolius entered the advanced regeneration in gaps by establishing in shade before gap formation. The floor of the Podocarpus-dominated forest was less shaded (?7.5% PAR) than angiosperm-dominated forest and dominated by grass, which suppressed most conifer regeneration. Gaps in Podocarpus forest were more than double the size of gaps in angiosperm forest and dominated by vines and understorey shrubs. There was no clear winner of the angiosperm-conifer contest in Podocarpus forest gaps. Consequently, gaps maintain limited angiosperm diversity in Podocarpus forest. Angiosperm canopy species regenerated continuously in the high light (?11.5% PAR) thicket environment. Few seedlings of P. latifolius were recorded in the thicket environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that shaded and infrequently disturbed forest sites favour shade-tolerant conifers over relatively light-demanding angiosperm species. The outcome of the competitive interaction between angiosperm and conifer at the regeneration phase depends on the relative shade-tolerance of associated species. Crown Copyright � 2009.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)176-186
    Number of pages11
    JournalForest Ecology and Management
    Volume259
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

    Fingerprint

    shade tolerance
    angiosperm
    conifers
    coniferous tree
    Angiospermae
    regeneration
    Podocarpus
    photosynthetically active radiation
    canopy
    shade
    vine
    seedling
    sapling
    saplings
    vines
    seedlings
    Podocarpus latifolius
    grass
    grasses
    ground vegetation

    Cite this

    @article{c8f5332c24d048f18deb0dc8e9f6ea9a,
    title = "Explaining conifer dominance in Afrotemperate forests: Shade tolerance favours Podocarpus latifolius over angiosperm species",
    abstract = "We contrasted the regeneration success of angiosperm canopy species with that of Podocarpus latifolius to test whether this conifer was sufficiently shade tolerant to be favoured on infrequently disturbed and well-shaded sites. Seedling and sapling population structures were measured in several habitats representing a light gradient in warm temperate forest in the Drakenberg mountains of South Africa. The angiosperm-dominated forest was well-shaded (?5.5{\%} PAR) and lacked ground vegetation. Seedlings of angiosperm canopy species were abundant but the absence of saplings indicated regeneration failure. In contrast, P. latifolius was represented by all size classes beneath the intact canopy indicating continuous regeneration in angiosperm-dominated forest. Angiosperm regeneration was similarly poor in forest gaps, which were dominated by grasses, ferns and vines. P. latifolius entered the advanced regeneration in gaps by establishing in shade before gap formation. The floor of the Podocarpus-dominated forest was less shaded (?7.5{\%} PAR) than angiosperm-dominated forest and dominated by grass, which suppressed most conifer regeneration. Gaps in Podocarpus forest were more than double the size of gaps in angiosperm forest and dominated by vines and understorey shrubs. There was no clear winner of the angiosperm-conifer contest in Podocarpus forest gaps. Consequently, gaps maintain limited angiosperm diversity in Podocarpus forest. Angiosperm canopy species regenerated continuously in the high light (?11.5{\%} PAR) thicket environment. Few seedlings of P. latifolius were recorded in the thicket environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that shaded and infrequently disturbed forest sites favour shade-tolerant conifers over relatively light-demanding angiosperm species. The outcome of the competitive interaction between angiosperm and conifer at the regeneration phase depends on the relative shade-tolerance of associated species. Crown Copyright � 2009.",
    keywords = "Advanced regeneration, Angiosperm species, Canopy species, Competitive interactions, Forest gaps, Forest sites, Gap formation, Ground vegetation, Light gradients, Podocarpus, Population structures, Regeneration failure, Shade tolerance, Size class, South Africa, Temperate forests, Understorey, Light transmission, Transparency, Reforestation, angiosperm, competition (ecology), coniferous forest, dominance, forest canopy, gap dynamics, habitat structure, light effect, regeneration, shade tolerance, species diversity, Forestry, Softwoods, Transmittance, Transparence, Coniferophyta, Filicophyta, Magnoliophyta, Poaceae, Podocarpus latifolius",
    author = "H ADIE and Michael Lawes",
    year = "2009",
    language = "English",
    volume = "259",
    pages = "176--186",
    journal = "Forest Ecology and Management",
    issn = "0378-1127",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "2",

    }

    Explaining conifer dominance in Afrotemperate forests : Shade tolerance favours Podocarpus latifolius over angiosperm species. / ADIE, H; Lawes, Michael.

    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 2, 2009, p. 176-186.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Explaining conifer dominance in Afrotemperate forests

    T2 - Shade tolerance favours Podocarpus latifolius over angiosperm species

    AU - ADIE, H

    AU - Lawes, Michael

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - We contrasted the regeneration success of angiosperm canopy species with that of Podocarpus latifolius to test whether this conifer was sufficiently shade tolerant to be favoured on infrequently disturbed and well-shaded sites. Seedling and sapling population structures were measured in several habitats representing a light gradient in warm temperate forest in the Drakenberg mountains of South Africa. The angiosperm-dominated forest was well-shaded (?5.5% PAR) and lacked ground vegetation. Seedlings of angiosperm canopy species were abundant but the absence of saplings indicated regeneration failure. In contrast, P. latifolius was represented by all size classes beneath the intact canopy indicating continuous regeneration in angiosperm-dominated forest. Angiosperm regeneration was similarly poor in forest gaps, which were dominated by grasses, ferns and vines. P. latifolius entered the advanced regeneration in gaps by establishing in shade before gap formation. The floor of the Podocarpus-dominated forest was less shaded (?7.5% PAR) than angiosperm-dominated forest and dominated by grass, which suppressed most conifer regeneration. Gaps in Podocarpus forest were more than double the size of gaps in angiosperm forest and dominated by vines and understorey shrubs. There was no clear winner of the angiosperm-conifer contest in Podocarpus forest gaps. Consequently, gaps maintain limited angiosperm diversity in Podocarpus forest. Angiosperm canopy species regenerated continuously in the high light (?11.5% PAR) thicket environment. Few seedlings of P. latifolius were recorded in the thicket environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that shaded and infrequently disturbed forest sites favour shade-tolerant conifers over relatively light-demanding angiosperm species. The outcome of the competitive interaction between angiosperm and conifer at the regeneration phase depends on the relative shade-tolerance of associated species. Crown Copyright � 2009.

    AB - We contrasted the regeneration success of angiosperm canopy species with that of Podocarpus latifolius to test whether this conifer was sufficiently shade tolerant to be favoured on infrequently disturbed and well-shaded sites. Seedling and sapling population structures were measured in several habitats representing a light gradient in warm temperate forest in the Drakenberg mountains of South Africa. The angiosperm-dominated forest was well-shaded (?5.5% PAR) and lacked ground vegetation. Seedlings of angiosperm canopy species were abundant but the absence of saplings indicated regeneration failure. In contrast, P. latifolius was represented by all size classes beneath the intact canopy indicating continuous regeneration in angiosperm-dominated forest. Angiosperm regeneration was similarly poor in forest gaps, which were dominated by grasses, ferns and vines. P. latifolius entered the advanced regeneration in gaps by establishing in shade before gap formation. The floor of the Podocarpus-dominated forest was less shaded (?7.5% PAR) than angiosperm-dominated forest and dominated by grass, which suppressed most conifer regeneration. Gaps in Podocarpus forest were more than double the size of gaps in angiosperm forest and dominated by vines and understorey shrubs. There was no clear winner of the angiosperm-conifer contest in Podocarpus forest gaps. Consequently, gaps maintain limited angiosperm diversity in Podocarpus forest. Angiosperm canopy species regenerated continuously in the high light (?11.5% PAR) thicket environment. Few seedlings of P. latifolius were recorded in the thicket environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that shaded and infrequently disturbed forest sites favour shade-tolerant conifers over relatively light-demanding angiosperm species. The outcome of the competitive interaction between angiosperm and conifer at the regeneration phase depends on the relative shade-tolerance of associated species. Crown Copyright � 2009.

    KW - Advanced regeneration

    KW - Angiosperm species

    KW - Canopy species

    KW - Competitive interactions

    KW - Forest gaps

    KW - Forest sites

    KW - Gap formation

    KW - Ground vegetation

    KW - Light gradients

    KW - Podocarpus

    KW - Population structures

    KW - Regeneration failure

    KW - Shade tolerance

    KW - Size class

    KW - South Africa

    KW - Temperate forests

    KW - Understorey

    KW - Light transmission

    KW - Transparency

    KW - Reforestation

    KW - angiosperm

    KW - competition (ecology)

    KW - coniferous forest

    KW - dominance

    KW - forest canopy

    KW - gap dynamics

    KW - habitat structure

    KW - light effect

    KW - regeneration

    KW - shade tolerance

    KW - species diversity

    KW - Forestry

    KW - Softwoods

    KW - Transmittance

    KW - Transparence

    KW - Coniferophyta

    KW - Filicophyta

    KW - Magnoliophyta

    KW - Poaceae

    KW - Podocarpus latifolius

    M3 - Article

    VL - 259

    SP - 176

    EP - 186

    JO - Forest Ecology and Management

    JF - Forest Ecology and Management

    SN - 0378-1127

    IS - 2

    ER -