Factor structure of isokinetic testing in male and female athletes: An exploratory analysis

Anthony Boutagy, Tim Heazlewood

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractpeer-review


Introduction: Isokinetic testing for both clinical evaluation and predicting sports performance
has been utilised extensively over the past 30 years. An extensive literature research has
revealed that minimal research has been conducted the factor structure of the data collected and as a result minimal information is available on this research topic. Exploratory factor analysis evaluates the factor structure of a data set when no or few preconceived theoretical models exist as compared to confirmatory factor analysis, which attempts to reproduce some pre-existing factor structure of data or theoretical model. The aim of this research was to investigate the factor structure of torque, work and fatigue index based concentric contractions for knee extension in both male and female athletes.

Methods: Sixty healthy, physically fit, active male (N=32; Age=23.9 yrs; Ht=181.7cm; Wt=79.6kg) and female (n=28; Age=23.9 yrs;
Ht=167.8cm; Wt=58.9kg)) athletes participated in the study (mean age = 21.1 years; mean
height = 175cm; mean weight = 70kg). Maximal performance on the experimental dependent
variables of isokinetic torque, work, and isokinetic fatigue was assessed in a university
laboratory environment. Specifically, were measured on the CYBEX 340 isokinetic muscle
evaluation system with HUMAC software at isokinetic speeds of 60, 180 and 300os-1 using
leg extension to assess torque, muscular work and fatigue index. The analysis was based on
principal component analysis using a varimax rotation and using data separately in the analysis for each gender. 

Results: The results for males derived two significant factors explaining 80.6% of variance in correlation matrix. Peak torque at 60, 180; total work at 60 and 180 loaded significantly with factor 1 and peak torque at 300, total work 300, fatigue index at 300 and fatigue index at 180 loaded with factor 2. The results for females derived a three-factor solution
explaining 86.6% of the explained variance. Peak torque 180 and 300; total work 180 and 300 and fatigue index at 180 loaded on factor 1. Peak torque 60 and total work 60 loaded on factor
2. Fatigue index 300 loaded uniquely on factor 3. Conclusion: The results suggested two
distant factor structures linked to gender of athlete. Where a two-factor model existed for males and a three-factor model for females. This indicates that different isokinetic speeds are measuring unique factors and when testing athletes of different genders and suggests it would be realistic to test athletes at relevant competitive and unique speeds of movement. Although the results are based on relatively small samples the exploratory research is indicating some unique differences between genders when testing these constructs.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019
EventAsia-Singapore Conference on Sport Science 2019 - Grand Copthorne Waterfront Singapore, Singapore
Duration: 18 Jul 201919 Jul 2019


ConferenceAsia-Singapore Conference on Sport Science 2019
Abbreviated titleACSS 2019
Internet address


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