After the outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, policy makers are expected to make decisions on the restocking of pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate farmers’ perceptions of CSF outbreak in coastal and inland communal production systems because of their differences in harbouring pathogens. Data were collected from 288 farmers in two CSF affected areas (one on the coast, one inland) and one unaffected coastal area. The majority of farmers in affected inland (73%) and coastal (89%) areas kept local pigs and non-descript crosses with imported pigs on backyard production system. Significantly, more pigs were culled in the affected coastal area than inland area. In both areas, the culling of pigs affected pork availability and income generation. Household heads that were residing on the farms that are educated, mature and located inland were less likely to experience disease challenges. To facilitate restocking and conservation of local pig genetic resources, farmers requested the government and stakeholders to assist with loans, breeding stock, proper housing structures and improved extension services. Farmers in both coastal and inland areas perceived CSF as destructive to pigs, thereby jeopardising their source of livelihoods.