Fetal Growth Restriction: Causes and Outcomes

Susan M. Sayers, Paul A.L. Lancaster, Clare L. Whitehead

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionarypeer-review


    This article provides an overview of world prevalence and distribution of low birth weight. The concept of birth weight for gestational age is developed with discussion of terminology, definitions, and reference standards used to define fetal growth restriction. The causes and possible mechanisms of fetal growth restriction are detailed with emphasis on maternal undernutrition and malaria in endemic areas for developing populations and smoking and placental dysfunction for developed populations. The life course consequences and mechanisms relating to the outcomes including intergenerational effects are briefly reviewed. The detection of fetal growth restriction, the difficulties of prevention, and the limitations of management are presented.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Public Health
    Number of pages11
    ISBN (Electronic)9780128037089
    ISBN (Print)9780128036785
    Publication statusPublished - 2017


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