Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in the torrefaction of biomass with different chemical composition

Qiuju Gao, Mar Edo, Sylvia H. Larsson, Elena Collina, Magnus Rudolfsson, Marta Gallina, Ibukun Oluwoye, Mohammednoor Altarawneh, Bogdan Z. Dlugogorski, Stina Jansson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Torrefaction is a thermal pre-treatment technology used to refine biomass, mainly for energy production purposes. However, there is currently a lack of information on the potential formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the torrefaction process. In this study, torrefaction was conducted using five different types of feedstock: stemwood, bark, wood from a discarded telephone pole, cassava stems and particle board. The feedstock as well as the torrefied biomass (chars) and the volatiles (non-condensable and condensable) generated during torrefaction were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. PCDD concentrations in the torrefaction products were about 2–5 fold of those in the feedstocks. Torrefaction of particle board resulted in extensive formation of PCDDs (7200 ng kg−1) compared to the other four feedstocks (13–27 ng kg−1). Examination of the homologue profiles suggested that the observed PCDDs in the torrefaction products partly originated from new formation and partly physical transformation from volatilization and re-condensation of PCDDs present in the feedstock. Dechlorination of highly chlorinated compounds (HpCDD and OCDD) in the feedstock to form less chlorinated PCDDs was also observed. Compared to PCDDs, the net formation of PCDFs in the torrefaction process was low, except for the telephone pole sample, for which a dramatic increase (44-fold) of PCDFs was observed. PCDDs and PCDFs were mainly retained in the chars, accounting for 76–96% and 39–74% of the total concentration, respectively. It was also found that the highly chlorinated congeners tended to be retained in the chars, whereas the less chlorinated ones were predominantly volatilized into the gas phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-133
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis
Volume123
Issue numberJanuary
Early online date21 Dec 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Feedstocks
Biomass
Chemical analysis
Particle board
Telephone
Poles
Dechlorination
Vaporization
dibenzo(1,4)dioxin
Condensation
Wood
Gases

Cite this

Gao, Q., Edo, M., Larsson, S. H., Collina, E., Rudolfsson, M., Gallina, M., ... Jansson, S. (2017). Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in the torrefaction of biomass with different chemical composition. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 123(January), 126-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2016.12.015
Gao, Qiuju ; Edo, Mar ; Larsson, Sylvia H. ; Collina, Elena ; Rudolfsson, Magnus ; Gallina, Marta ; Oluwoye, Ibukun ; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor ; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z. ; Jansson, Stina. / Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in the torrefaction of biomass with different chemical composition. In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2017 ; Vol. 123, No. January. pp. 126-133.
@article{b355afbd4e184ebcb79d233600eb1cd8,
title = "Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in the torrefaction of biomass with different chemical composition",
abstract = "Torrefaction is a thermal pre-treatment technology used to refine biomass, mainly for energy production purposes. However, there is currently a lack of information on the potential formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the torrefaction process. In this study, torrefaction was conducted using five different types of feedstock: stemwood, bark, wood from a discarded telephone pole, cassava stems and particle board. The feedstock as well as the torrefied biomass (chars) and the volatiles (non-condensable and condensable) generated during torrefaction were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. PCDD concentrations in the torrefaction products were about 2–5 fold of those in the feedstocks. Torrefaction of particle board resulted in extensive formation of PCDDs (7200 ng kg−1) compared to the other four feedstocks (13–27 ng kg−1). Examination of the homologue profiles suggested that the observed PCDDs in the torrefaction products partly originated from new formation and partly physical transformation from volatilization and re-condensation of PCDDs present in the feedstock. Dechlorination of highly chlorinated compounds (HpCDD and OCDD) in the feedstock to form less chlorinated PCDDs was also observed. Compared to PCDDs, the net formation of PCDFs in the torrefaction process was low, except for the telephone pole sample, for which a dramatic increase (44-fold) of PCDFs was observed. PCDDs and PCDFs were mainly retained in the chars, accounting for 76–96{\%} and 39–74{\%} of the total concentration, respectively. It was also found that the highly chlorinated congeners tended to be retained in the chars, whereas the less chlorinated ones were predominantly volatilized into the gas phase.",
keywords = "Lignocellulosic biomass, Persistent organic pollutant, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, Polychlorinated dibenzofuran, Thermochemical conversion",
author = "Qiuju Gao and Mar Edo and Larsson, {Sylvia H.} and Elena Collina and Magnus Rudolfsson and Marta Gallina and Ibukun Oluwoye and Mohammednoor Altarawneh and Dlugogorski, {Bogdan Z.} and Stina Jansson",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jaap.2016.12.015",
language = "English",
volume = "123",
pages = "126--133",
journal = "Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis",
issn = "0165-2370",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "January",

}

Gao, Q, Edo, M, Larsson, SH, Collina, E, Rudolfsson, M, Gallina, M, Oluwoye, I, Altarawneh, M, Dlugogorski, BZ & Jansson, S 2017, 'Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in the torrefaction of biomass with different chemical composition', Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 123, no. January, pp. 126-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2016.12.015

Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in the torrefaction of biomass with different chemical composition. / Gao, Qiuju; Edo, Mar; Larsson, Sylvia H.; Collina, Elena; Rudolfsson, Magnus; Gallina, Marta; Oluwoye, Ibukun; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Jansson, Stina.

In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol. 123, No. January, 01.2017, p. 126-133.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in the torrefaction of biomass with different chemical composition

AU - Gao, Qiuju

AU - Edo, Mar

AU - Larsson, Sylvia H.

AU - Collina, Elena

AU - Rudolfsson, Magnus

AU - Gallina, Marta

AU - Oluwoye, Ibukun

AU - Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

AU - Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.

AU - Jansson, Stina

PY - 2017/1

Y1 - 2017/1

N2 - Torrefaction is a thermal pre-treatment technology used to refine biomass, mainly for energy production purposes. However, there is currently a lack of information on the potential formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the torrefaction process. In this study, torrefaction was conducted using five different types of feedstock: stemwood, bark, wood from a discarded telephone pole, cassava stems and particle board. The feedstock as well as the torrefied biomass (chars) and the volatiles (non-condensable and condensable) generated during torrefaction were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. PCDD concentrations in the torrefaction products were about 2–5 fold of those in the feedstocks. Torrefaction of particle board resulted in extensive formation of PCDDs (7200 ng kg−1) compared to the other four feedstocks (13–27 ng kg−1). Examination of the homologue profiles suggested that the observed PCDDs in the torrefaction products partly originated from new formation and partly physical transformation from volatilization and re-condensation of PCDDs present in the feedstock. Dechlorination of highly chlorinated compounds (HpCDD and OCDD) in the feedstock to form less chlorinated PCDDs was also observed. Compared to PCDDs, the net formation of PCDFs in the torrefaction process was low, except for the telephone pole sample, for which a dramatic increase (44-fold) of PCDFs was observed. PCDDs and PCDFs were mainly retained in the chars, accounting for 76–96% and 39–74% of the total concentration, respectively. It was also found that the highly chlorinated congeners tended to be retained in the chars, whereas the less chlorinated ones were predominantly volatilized into the gas phase.

AB - Torrefaction is a thermal pre-treatment technology used to refine biomass, mainly for energy production purposes. However, there is currently a lack of information on the potential formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the torrefaction process. In this study, torrefaction was conducted using five different types of feedstock: stemwood, bark, wood from a discarded telephone pole, cassava stems and particle board. The feedstock as well as the torrefied biomass (chars) and the volatiles (non-condensable and condensable) generated during torrefaction were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. PCDD concentrations in the torrefaction products were about 2–5 fold of those in the feedstocks. Torrefaction of particle board resulted in extensive formation of PCDDs (7200 ng kg−1) compared to the other four feedstocks (13–27 ng kg−1). Examination of the homologue profiles suggested that the observed PCDDs in the torrefaction products partly originated from new formation and partly physical transformation from volatilization and re-condensation of PCDDs present in the feedstock. Dechlorination of highly chlorinated compounds (HpCDD and OCDD) in the feedstock to form less chlorinated PCDDs was also observed. Compared to PCDDs, the net formation of PCDFs in the torrefaction process was low, except for the telephone pole sample, for which a dramatic increase (44-fold) of PCDFs was observed. PCDDs and PCDFs were mainly retained in the chars, accounting for 76–96% and 39–74% of the total concentration, respectively. It was also found that the highly chlorinated congeners tended to be retained in the chars, whereas the less chlorinated ones were predominantly volatilized into the gas phase.

KW - Lignocellulosic biomass

KW - Persistent organic pollutant

KW - Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin

KW - Polychlorinated dibenzofuran

KW - Thermochemical conversion

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85009788162&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jaap.2016.12.015

DO - 10.1016/j.jaap.2016.12.015

M3 - Article

VL - 123

SP - 126

EP - 133

JO - Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis

JF - Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis

SN - 0165-2370

IS - January

ER -