Fire is a pervasive feature of the tropical savannas of northern Australia. Increasingly extensive and intensive fires have had an adverse effect on grass layer diversity. Reduced grass species diversity and abundance are important correlates of the decline of granivores in these tropical savannas. The Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), an endangered species that is endemic to northern Australia, is particularly vulnerable to changes to the grass layer as its diet comprises only grass seed, and it relies mostly on Sorghum stipoideum during the breeding season. Although this annual grass species is abundant at breeding sites, the finches do not always choose to breed at these sites, raising the possibility that seed qualitymay vary from year to year. This study examines the effect of fire (time since last fire; fire frequency) on soil fertility and seed nutritional quality. Wehypothesise that recently burnt sites produce a flush of soil nutrients and Sorghum stipoideum seed at these sites is of higher nutritional quality. Furthermore, we posit that frequently burnt sites become depleted of soil nutrients and their seeds are of lower nutritional quality. There was a significant increase in inorganic nitrogen in soils following a fire, but no notable change in other soil nutrients. Contingent on this increase in soil inorganic nitrogen, seed nutrient levels, particularly essential proteins, were greater at sites that were recently, but infrequently burnt. Fires appear to affect soil nitrogen and in turn seed nutrition, providing a plausible explanation for why Gouldian finches choose recently, but infrequently burnt breeding sites.