Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is well known for its involvement in the regulation of the nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) is the most characterized NOS among all the isoforms. It accounts for most of the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the ner- vous system required for synaptic transmission and neuroplasticity. Previous studies have described the localization of nNOS in specific brain regions of interest. There is substantial evidence in the literature suggesting that nNOS signaling has significant involvement in several disease pathologies. However, the association between brain nNOS expression profiles and disease remains largely unknown. In this review, we attempt to delineate the contribution of nNOS signaling in memory and mood disorders in order to achieve a better understanding of nNOS in disease modulation.