Genetic determinants of anti-malarial acquired immunity in a large multi-centre study

Jennifer M.G. Shelton, Patrick Corran, Paul Risley, Nilupa Silva, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Rachel Craik, Victoria Cornelius, Meike Hensmann, Sile Molloy, Nuno Sepulveda, Taane G. Clark, Gavin Band, Geraldine M. Clarke, Christopher C.A. Spencer, Angeliki Kerasidou, Susana Campino, Sarah Auburn, Adama TallAlioune Badara Ly, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Abdoulaye Djimdé, Boubacar Maiga, Ousmane Touré, Ogobara K. Doumbo, Amagana Dolo, Marita Troye-Blomberg, Valentina D. Mangano, Frederica Verra, David Modiano, Edith Bougouma, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Muntaser Ibrahim, Ayman Hussain, Nahid Eid, Abier Elzein, Hiba Mohammed, Ahmed Elhassan, Ibrahim Elhassan, Thomas N. Williams, Carolyne Ndila, Alexander Macharia, Kevin Marsh, Alphaxard Manjurano, Hugh Reyburn, Martha Lemnge, Deus Ishengoma, Richard Carter, Nadira Karunaweera, Deepika Fernando, Rajika Dewasurendra, Christopher J. Drakeley, Eleanor M. Riley, Dominic P. Kwiatkowski, Kirk A. Rockett, MalariaGEN Consortium, MalariaGEN Consortium

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Background: Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels.

Methods: Sera, DNA samples and clinical data were collected from 13,299 individuals from ten sites in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka using standardized methods. DNA was extracted and typed for 202 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with known associations to malaria or antibody production, and antibody levels to four clinical grade malarial antigens [AMA1, MSP1, MSP2, and (NANP)4] plus total IgE were measured by ELISA techniques. Regression models were used to investigate the associations of clinical and genetic factors with antibody levels.

Results: Malaria infection increased levels of antibodies to malaria antigens and, as expected, stable predictors of anti-malarial antibody levels included age, seasonality, location, and ethnicity. Correlations between antibodies to blood-stage antigens AMA1, MSP1 and MSP2 were higher between themselves than with antibodies to the (NANP)4 epitope of the pre-erythrocytic circumsporozoite protein, while there was little or no correlation with total IgE levels. Individuals with sickle cell trait had significantly lower antibody levels to all blood-stage antigens, and recessive homozygotes for CD36 (rs321198) had significantly lower anti-malarial antibody levels to MSP2.

Conclusion: Although the most significant finding with a consistent effect across sites was for sickle cell trait, its effect is likely to be via reducing a microscopically positive parasitaemia rather than directly on antibody levels. However, this study does demonstrate a framework for the feasibility of combining data from sites with heterogeneous malaria transmission levels across Africa and Asia with which to explore genetic effects on anti-malarial immunity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number833
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalMalaria Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


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