Genomic Analysis of Plasmodium vivax in Southern Ethiopia Reveals Selective Pressures in Multiple Parasite Mechanisms

Sarah Auburn, Sisay Getachew, Richard D. Pearson, Roberto Amato, Olivo Miotto, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Sha Joe Zhu, Angela Rumaseb, Jutta Marfurt, Rintis Noviyanti, Matthew J. Grigg, Bridget Barber, Timothy William, Sonia Morgado Goncalves, Eleanor Drury, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Nicholas M. Anstey, Francois Nosten, Beyene Petros, Abraham AseffaGil McVean, Dominic P. Kwiatkowski, Ric N. Price

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Abstract

The Horn of Africa harbors the largest reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in the continent. Most of sub-Saharan Africa has remained relatively vivax-free due to a high prevalence of the human Duffy-negative trait, but the emergence of strains able to invade Duffy-negative reticulocytes poses a major public health threat. We undertook the first population genomic investigation of P. vivax from the region, comparing the genomes of 24 Ethiopian isolates against data from Southeast Asia to identify important local adaptions. The prevalence of the Duffy binding protein amplification in Ethiopia was 79%, potentially reflecting adaptation to Duffy negativity. There was also evidence of selection in a region upstream of the chloroquine resistance transporter, a putative chloroquine-resistance determinant. Strong signals of selection were observed in genes involved in immune evasion and regulation of gene expression, highlighting the need for a multifaceted intervention approach to combat P. vivax in the region.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1738-1749
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume220
Issue number11
Early online date21 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

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