Germ Cell Testicular Cancer Incidence, Latitude and Sunlight Associations in the United States and Australia

Robert J. Biggar, Peter D. Baade, Jiandong Sun, Lindsay E. Brandon, Michael G. Kimlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

International patterns suggest germ cell testicular cancer (GCTC) incidence may be lower in lower latitudes. To investigate this possibility, we examined GCTC incidence by latitude (population centroid in 2000) for men ≥15 years within two reasonably homogeneous countries, the United States and Australia. In the United States, we examined age-adjusted incidence/latitude trends using data from states (2001–2010) and local-area registries (1980–2011). In Australia, we evaluated incidence/latitude trends in 61 Statistical Divisions (2000–2009). In U.S. White men (68 566 cases), state incidences increased by latitude, rising 5.74% (4.45–7.05%) per 5°North latitude increment. Similar trends were found for seminoma and nonseminoma subtypes (P < 0.001). In U.S. Black men (2256 cases), the association was also seen (4.9%; 0.2–9.7%). In local U.S. data, similar increases in incidence with latitude were present in each of the last three decades. In Australia (6042 cases), the incidence increased by 4.43% (95% CI: 1.54–7.39%) per 5°South, and trends for subtypes were similar. Thus, we found that incidence of GCTC in both White and Black men increased significantly with distance from the equator, approximately 1% per degree within the range of latitudes studied.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)735-741
Number of pages7
JournalPhotochemistry and Photobiology
Volume92
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes

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